al-Fātiḥa

سورة الفاتحة

Sūra al-Fātiḥa (The Opening)


بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ (2) الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ (3) مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ (4) إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (5) اهْدِنَا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6) صِراطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ (7)


(1) By the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. (2) Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds (3) The Compassionate, the Merciful (4) Master (or: King) of the day of requital (5) You do we worship, and You do we ask for help (6) Guide us to the straight path (7) The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those upon whom is wrath and not of the astray.


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم قَالَ: حدثنا عُبَيْدُ الله، قال: وحدثني أبى عن الْهُذَيْلِ عن سُفْيَان عن مَنْصُور عن مُجَاهِد، قال: قَالَ : فاتحة الكتاب مدنية.


By the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: And my father narrated to me from al-Hudhayl from Sufyān from Manṣūr from Mujāhid.  He said: He said: The Fātiḥa of the Book is Medinan.


قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ الله، قال: وحدثني أبي عن الهذيل عن مُقَاتِلٍ عَنِ الضَّحَّاكِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ- صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ- قَالَ: فَاتِحَةُ الْكِتَابِ مَدَنِيَّةٌ .


He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: And my father narrated to me from al-Hudhayl from Muqātil from al-Ḍaḥḥāk from Ibn ʿAbbās from the Prophet صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.  He said: The Fātiḥa of the Book is Medinan.


سُورَةُ فَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ سَبْعُ آيَاتٍ كوفية وهي مدنية ويقال مكية .


The sūra of the Fātiḥa of the Book is seven Kufan āyāt (i.e. by the Kufan count), and it is Medinan.  And it is said (that it is) Meccan.


بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ- 1- الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ يعني الشكر للَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ- 2- يعني الجن والإنس مثل قوله: لِيَكُونَ لِلْعالَمِينَ نَذِيراً 


By the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  Praise be to God” meaning thanks be to God “the Lord of the worlds” meaning the jinn and humankind, like His saying “that he may be a warner for the worlds” (25:1) 


الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ- 3- اسمان رقيقان أَحَدهمَا أرق من الآخر الرَّحْمنِ يعني المترحم، الرَّحِيمِ يعني المتعطف بالرحمة.


The Compassionate, the Merciful” two names that are gentle, one of which is gentler than the other “the Compassionate” meaning the one who has mercy “the Merciful” meaning who takes on (?) mercy.


مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ- 4- يعنى يوم الحساب كقوله- سبحانه- إِنَّا لَمَدِينُونَ يعني لمحاسبون وذلك أن ملوك الدُّنْيَا يملكون فِي الدُّنْيَا فأخبر- سُبْحَانَهُ- أَنَّهُ لا يَمْلك يوم الْقِيَامَة أحد غيره فذلك قوله- تعالى-: وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ .


Master (or: King) of the day of requital (al-dīn)” meaning the day of reckoning as His سُبْحَانَهُ saying “shall we indeed be requited (madīnūn)” (37:53) meaning reckoned.  And that is because the kings of this world rule in the world, so He سُبْحَانَهُ informed him that no one shall rule on the day of the resurrection other than Him, and that is His تعالى saying “the command that day shall belong to God” (82:19).


إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ يعني نوحد كقوله- سُبْحَانَهُ- فِي المفصل: عابِداتٍ يعني موحدات.


You do we worship” meaning we profess belief in God’s oneness (nuwaḥḥidu), like His سُبْحَانَهُ saying in the elaboration “worshippers” (66:5) meaning those who profess belief in God’s oneness (muwaḥḥidāt).


وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ- 5- عَلَى عبادتك اهْدِنَا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ- 6- يعني دين الإسلام لأن غير دين الإسلام لَيْسَ بمستقيم وَفِي قراءة ابْن مَسْعُود:

ارشدنا.


And You do we ask for help” upon Your worship “Guide us (ihdinā) to the straight path” meaning the religion of Islam, for (any religion) other than Islam is not straight.  And in the recitation of Ibn Masʿūd “irshadnā” (also means “guide us”).


صِراطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ يعني دلنا عَلَى طريق الَّذِين أنعمت عليهم يعني النبيين الَّذِين أنعم اللَّه عليهم بالنبوة كقوله- سُبْحَانَهُ: أُولئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ .


The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor” meaning show us the road of those You have bestowed favor upon, meaning the prophets who God bestowed favor upon by prophethood as His سُبْحَانَهُ saying “those are the ones upon whom God has bestowed favor from the prophets” (19:58).


غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ يعني دلنا عَلَى دين غير اليهود الَّذِين غضب اللَّه عليهم «5» فجعل «6» منهم القردة والخنازير. وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ- 7- يَقُولُ وَلا دين المشركين يعني النصارى.


Not of those upon whom You have wrath” meaning show us a religion other than that of the Jews who God was wrathful upon, so He made from them apes and pigs “nor of the astray” He is saying: and not the religion of the polytheists (al-mushrikīn), meaning the Christians.


قَالَ: حدثنا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنِ الْهُذَيْلِ عَنْ مُقَاتِلٍ عَنْ مَرْثَدٍ عَنْ أََبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رسول الله- صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال: يَقُولُ اللَّهُ- عَزَّ وَجَلَّ-: قَسَّمْتُ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ عَبْدِي نِصْفَيْنِ، فَإِذَا قَالَ الْعَبْدُ: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ. يَقُولُ اللَّهُ- عَزَّ وَجَلَّ-: شَكَرَنِي عَبْدِي. فَإِذَا قَالَ: الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ. يَقُولُ اللَّهُ: مَدَحَنِي عَبْدِي. فإذا قال: مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ. يَقُولُ اللَّهُ: أَثْنَى عَلَيَّ عَبْدِي. وَلِعَبْدِي بَقِيَّةُ السُّورَةِ. وَإِذَا قَالَ: وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ. يَقُولُ اللَّهُ: فَهَذِهِ لِعَبْدِي. وَإِذَا قَالَ: صِراطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ. يَقُولُ اللَّهُ: فَهَذِهِ لِعَبْدِي. وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ. فَهَذِهِ لِعَبْدِي.


He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: My father narrated to me from al-Hudhayl from Muqātil from Marthad from Abū Hurayra that the Messenger of God صلى الله عليه وسلم said: God عَزَّ وَجَلَّ says: I have divided this sūra in two halves between Me and My servant.  When the servant has said “Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds” God عَزَّ وَجَلَّ says: My servant has given Me thanks.  When he has said “The Compassionate, the Merciful”, God says: My servant has praised Me.  When he has said “King of the day of requital”, God says: My servant has commended Me.  And the rest of the sūra is for My servant.  So when he has said “You do we worship and You do we ask for help”, God says: This is for My servant.  And when he has said “The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor”, God says: This is for My servant.  “And not of the astray” This is for My servant.


قَالَ: حدثنا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أبي، قال: حدثنا الهذيل عن مقاتل قال: إذا قرأ أحدكم هَذِهِ السورة فبلغ خاتمتها، فَقَالَ: وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ فليقل آمين فَإِن الملائكة تؤمن فَإِن وافق تأمين الناس غفر للقوم ما تقدم من ذنوبهم.


He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: My father narrated to me from al-Hudhayl from Muqātil.  He said: When one of you has recited this sūra and reached its conclusion and said “and not of the astray”, then he is to say āmīn, for the angels say āmīn.  So if it matches the saying of āmīn of the people, whatever has preceded of their sins is forgiven for the people.


قَالَ: حدثنا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي هُذَيْل عن وَكِيع عن منصور عن مُجَاهِد، قَالَ: لما نزلت فاتحة الكتاب رنَّ إبليس .


He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: My father narrated to me.  He said: Hudhayl narrated to me from Wakīʿ from Manṣūr from Mujāhid.  He said: When the Fātiḥa of the Book was sent down, Iblīs cried aloud.


قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ صَالِحٍ عَنْ وَكِيعٍ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ عَنْ السُّدِّيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ خَيْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ- رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ- فِي قَوْلِهِ- عَزَّ وَجَلَّ-: سَبْعاً مِنَ الْمَثانِي قال: هي فاتحة الكتاب.


He said: ʿUbaydullāh narrated to us.  He said: My father narrated to me from Ṣāliḥ from Wakīʿ from Sufyān al-Thawrī from al-Suddī from ʿAbd Khayr from ʿAlī رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ regarding His عَزَّ وَجَلَّ saying “seven from the oft-repeated (al-mathānī)” (15:87).  He said: It is the Fātiḥa of the Book.