48-50

{ وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَابَ بِٱلْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِناً عَلَيْهِ فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجاً وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَىٰ الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعاً فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ } * { وَأَنِ ٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ وَٱحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَٱعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ } * { أَفَحُكْمَ ٱلْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حُكْماً لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ }


(48) And We have sent down to you the Book with the truth, confirming the Book that was before it, and assuring it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires, to forsake the truth that has come to you. To every one of you We have appointed a law and a way. If God had willed, He would have made you one Umma; but that He may try you in what has come to you. So be you forward in good works; unto God shall you return, all together; and He will tell you of that wherein you differ (49) Judge between them by that which God has sent down, and follow not their desires, but beware of them lest they seduce you from some part of what God has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that God’s will is to smite them for some sin of theirs. Indeed, much of the people are transgressors. (50) Is it the judgment of Ignorance they desire, and who is better than God in judgment for a people who are certain.


قوله سبحانه: { وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَابَ } يا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، { بِٱلْحَقِّ } ، يعنى القرآن بالحق، لم ننزله عبثاً ولا باطلاً لغير شىء، { مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِناً عَلَيْهِ } ، يقول: وشاهداً عليه، وذلك أن قرآن محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم شاهد بأن الكتب التى أنزلت قبله أنها من الله عز وجل، { فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ } إليك فى القرآن، { وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ } ، يعنى أهواء اليهود، { عَمَّا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ } ، وهو القرآن، { لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً } ، يعنى من المسلمين وأهل الكتاب، { شِرْعَةً } ، يعنى سُنة، { وَمِنْهَاجاً } ، يعنى طريقاً وسبيلاً، فشريعة أهل التوراة فى قتل العمد القصاص ليس لهم عقل ولا دية، والرجم على المحصن والمحصنة إذا زنيا.


His سبحانه saying “And We have sent down to you the Book” O Muḥammad صلى الله عليه وسلم “with the truth” meaning the Quran with the truth, He did not send it down vainly or falsely for nothing “confirming the Book that was before it and assuring it” He is saying: And as a witness upon it, and that is that the Quran of Muḥammad صلى الله عليه وسلم is a witness that the books which were sent down before it are from God عز وجل “So judge between them by that which God has sent down” to you in the Quran “and do not follow their desires” meaning the desires of the Jews “about what has come to you of the truth” and it is the Quran “To every one of you We have appointed a law” meaning from the Muslims and the People of the Book “a law” meaning a Sunna “and a way” meaning a road and a path.  So the law of the people of the Torah regarding intentional killing is retaliation, there is no blood-wit or blood money for them, and stoning is upon the muḥṣan man and muḥṣan woman when they have fornicated (a muḥṣan is someone who is married and whose spouse is sexually available to them).


وشريعة الإنجيل فى القتل العمد العفو، ليس لهم قصاص ولا دية، وشريعتهم فى الزنا الجلد بلا رجم، وشريعة أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فى قتل العمد القصاص والدية والعفو، وشريعتهم فى الزنا إذا لم يحصن الجلد، فإذا أحصن فالرجم، { وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ } يا أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وأهل الكتاب، { أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً } على دين الإسلام وحدها، { وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ } ، يعنى يبتليكم، { فِي مَآ آتَاكُم } ، يعنى فيما أعطاكم من الكتاب والسُنة من يطع الله عز وجل فيما أمر ونهى، ومن يعصه، { فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ } ، يقول: سارعوا فى الأعمال الصالحة يا أمة محمد، فيما ذكر من السبيل والسُنة، { إِلَىٰ الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعاً } فى الآخرة أنتم وأهل الكتاب، { فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ } [آية: 48] فى الدين.


And the law of the Gospel in intentional killing is pardon, there is no retaliation for them and no blood-money, and their law in fornication is lashing with no stoning.  And the law of the Umma of Muḥammad صلى الله عليه وسلم in intentional killing is retaliation and blood-money and pardon, and their law in fornication when one is not muḥsan is lashing, and when one is muḥṣan it is stoning “If God had willed, He would have made you” O Umma of Muḥammad and the People of the Book “one Umma” upon the religion of Islam alone “but that He may try you” meaning afflict you “in what has come to you” meaning in what He gave you of the Book and the Sunna who would obey God عز وجل in what He commanded and prohibited, and who would disobey Him “So be you forward in good works” He is saying: Hasten in the righteous deeds, O Umma of Muḥammad, in what has been mentioned of the path and the Sunna “unto God shall you return, all together” in the Hereafter, you and the People of the Book “and He will tell you of that wherein you differ” in religion.


قوله سبحانه: { وَأَنِ ٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ } إليك فى الكتاب، يعنى بين اليهود، وذلك أن قوماً من رءوس اليهود من أهل النصير اختلفوا، فقال بعضهم لبعض: انطلقوا بنا إلى محمد لعلنا نفتنه ونرده عما هو عليه، فإنما هو بشر إذن فيستمع، فأتوه فقالوا له: هل لك أن تحكم لنا على أصحابنا أهل قريظة فى أمر الدماء كما كنا عليه من قبل، فإن فعلت، فإنا نبايعك ونطيعك، وإنا إذا بايعناك تابعك أهل الكتاب كلهم؛ لأنا سادتهم وأحبارهم، فنحن نفتنهم ونزلهم عما هم عليه حتى يدخلوا فى دينك.


His سبحانه saying “Judge between them by that which God has sent down” to you in the Book, meaning between the Jews, and that is that a group from the heads of the Jews from the people of al-Naṣīr (likely an error for al-Naḍīr) were in disagreement, so they said to one another: Go with us to Muḥammad so that we might seduce him and return him from what he is upon, for he is only a man so he will listen.  They came to him and said to him: Is it (allowed) for you to judge for us against our companions of the people of Qurayẓa regarding the matter of bloods as we had been upon prior.  For it you do so, we will give allegiance to you and follow you, and when we have given allegiance to you all of the People of the Book will follow you, for you we are their masters and their rabbis.  We will seduce them and make them forsake what they are upon until they enter into your religion.


فأنزل الله عز وجل يحذر نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال: { وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ } فى أمر الدماء، { وَٱحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ } ، يعنى أن يصدوك، { عَن بَعْضِ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ } من أمر الدماء بالسوية، { فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ } ، يقول: فإن أبوا حكمك، { فَٱعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم } ، يعنى أن يعذبهم فى الدنيا بالقتل والجلاء من المدينة إلى الشام، { بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ } ، يعنى ببعض الدماء التى كانت بينهم من قبل أن يبعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، { وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِ } ، يعنى رءوس اليهود، { لَفَاسِقُونَ } [آية: 49]، يعنى لعاصون حين كرهوا حكم النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم فى أمر الدماء بالحق.


So God عز وجل sent down in warning His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, He said “and follow not their desires” in the matter of bloods “but beware of them lest they seduce you” meaning keep you away from “from some part of what God has sent down to you” of the matter of bloods by equality “And if they turn away” He is saying: So if they refuse your judgment “then know that God’s will is to smite them” meaning to punish them in this world by killing and exile from Medina to Syria “for some sin of theirs” meaning by some of the bloods that were between them prior to Muḥammad صلى الله عليه وسلم being sent “Indeed, much of the people” meaning the heads of the Jews “are transgressors” meaning disobedient when they disliked the judgment of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in the matter of the bloods by the truth.


فقال كعب بن الأشرف، ومالك بن الضيف، وكعب بن أسيد، للنبى صلى الله عليه وسلم، لا نرضى بحكمك، فأنزل الله عز وجل: { أَفَحُكْمَ ٱلْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ } ، الذى كانوا عليه من الجور من قبل أن يبعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، { وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حُكْماً } ، يقول: فلا أحد أحسن من الله حكماً، { لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ } [آية: 50] بالله عز وجل.


Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf, Mālik b. al-Ḍayf, and Kaʿb b. Asīd said to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم: We do not accept your judgment.  So God عز وجل sent down “Is it the judgment of Ignorance they desire” which they had been upon of injustice before Muḥammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was sent “and who is better than God in judgment” He is saying: There is no one better than God in judgment “for a people who are certain” of God عز وجل.