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Jawami` ash-Shari`a

From Tuhaf al-`Uqul


روي أن المأمون بعث الفضل بن سهل ذا الرياستين إلى الرضا عليه السلام فقال لهإني أحب أن تجمع لي من الحلال والحرام والفرائض والسنن، فإنك حجة الله على خلقه ومعدن العلمفدعا الرضا عليه السلام بدواة وقرطاس، وقال عليه السلام للفضلاكتب


It is narrated that al-Ma’mun sent al-Fadl b. Sahl, Dha ‘r-Riyasatayn (possessor of two leading positions) to ar-Rida عليه السلام and he said to him: Verily I love that you summarize for me the halal and the haram, and the fara’id and the sunan, for verily you are the Proof of Allah upon His creation and the repository of knowledge. So ar-Rida عليه السلام called for an inkwell and paper, and he عليه السلام said to al-Fadl: Write:


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم حسبنا شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله، أحدا صمدا، لم يتخذ صاحبة ولا ولدا، قيوما، سميعا، بصيرا، قويا، قائما باقيا، نورا، عالما لا يجهل، قادرا لا يعجز، غنيا لا يحتاج عدلا لا يجور، خلق كل شئ، ليس كمثله شئ، لا شبه له ولا ضد ولا ند ولا كفو


By the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Enough for us is the testimony that there is no god but Allah, unique, absolute; He did not take a spouse, or a child, self-subsisting, all-hearing, all-seeing, all-powerful, self-existing, everlasting, light, all-knowing not ignorant, able, not incapable, needless, not needy, just, not oppressing.  He created everything.  There is nothing like unto Him.  He has no likeness, no opposite, no peer, and no equal.


وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله وأمينه وصفوته من خلقه، سيد المرسلين وخاتم النبيين وأفضل العالمين، لا نبي بعده ولا تبديل لملته ولا تغييروأن جميع ما جاء به محمد صلى الله عليه واله أنه هو الحق المبين، نصدق به وبجميع من مضى قبله من رسل الله وأنبيائه وحججه


And that Muhammad is His servant, His messenger, His trustee and His select from His creation – master of those sent, seal of the prophets, and the best of the worlds.  There is no prophet after him, no replacement of his creed and no alteration.  And that all that Muhammad صلى الله عليه واله brought, verily it is the clear truth.  We believe in him and in all of those who passed prior to him from the messengers of Allah, His prophets and His hujaj (proofs, pl. of hujjah).


ونصدق بكتابه الصادق " لا يأتيه الباطل من بين يديه ولا من خلفه تنزيل من حكيم حميد ". وأنه [ كتابه ] المهيمن على الكتب كلهاوأنه حق من فاتحته إلى خاتمتهنؤمن بمحكمه ومتشابههوخاصه وعامهووعده ووعيدهوناسخه ومنسوخه وأخباره لا يقدر واحد من المخلوقين أن يأتي بمثله.


We believe in His truthful book - “falsehood does not come to it from before it nor from behind it; a revelation from one wise, praised”. (41:42) That it [His book] is dominant over all of the books.  That it is the truth from its opening to its conclusion.  We believe in its muhkam (unequivocal, whose import is obvious) and its mutashabih (allegorical, ambiguous), its specific and its general, its promise and its threat, its abrogating (verses) and its abrogated, and its reports.  Not one of the created beings is able to bring its like.


وأن الدليل والحجة من بعده على المؤمنين و القائم بأمور المسلمين، والناطق عن القرآن والعالم بأحكامه، أخوه وخليفته ووصيه والذي كان منه بمنزلة هارون من موسى، علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام أمير المؤمنين وإمام المتقين وقائد الغر المحجلين، يعسوب المؤمنين وأفضل الوصيين بعد النبيينوبعده الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام، واحدا بعد واحد إلى يومنا هذا، عترة الرسول وأعلمهم بالكتاب والسنة وأعدلهم بالقضية وأولاهم بالامامة في كل عصر وزمان وأنهم العروة الوثقى وأئمة الهدى والحجة على أهل الدنيا حتى يرث الله الارض ومن عليها وهو خير الوارثينوأن كل من خالفهم ضال مضل، تارك للحق والهدىوأنهم المعبرون عن القرآن، الناطقون عن الرسول بالبيان، من مات لا يعرفهم ولا يتولاهم بأسمائهم وأسماء آبائهم مات ميتة جاهلية


And that the evidence and the proof after him upon the believers, the one in charge of the affairs of the Muslims, the speaker about the Qur’an and the knower of its rules, is his brother, his successor, his legatee and the one who was to him of the station of Harun to Musa, `Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام, the commander of the believers, the Imam of the God-fearing, the leader of the ghurar al-muhajjilin (having whiteness of the parts of wudu), the drone of the believers, and the best of the legatees after the prophets.  After him (are) al-Hasan and al-Husayn عليهما السلام, one after the other until this day of ours, the progeny of the Messenger, the most knowledgeable of them of the Book and the Sunna, the most just of them in law, and the most suited of them to Imamate in every age and time.  And that they are the firmest handle, the Imams of guidance, the Proof upon the people of the world, until Allah inherits the Earth and whoever is upon it, and He is the best of the inheritors.  And that each of their antagonists is misguided and misguiding, the abandoner of truth and guidance. And that they are ones who give expression to the Qur’an, the spokespersons of the Messenger through elucidation.  Whoever dies and does not recognize them and does not give loyalty to them, by their names and the names of their fathers, dies the death of Ignorance.


وأن من دينهم الورع والعفة والصدق والصلاح والاجتهاد وأداء الامانة إلى البر والفاجر وطول السجود والقيام بالليل واجتناب المحارم وانتظار الفرج بالصبر وحسن الصحبة وحسن الجوار وبذل المعروف وكف الاذى وبسط الوجه والنصيحة والرحمة للمؤمنين


And that from their religion is piety, chastity, truthfulness, righteousness, diligence, the fulfillment of trusts to the honest and the corrupt (alike), prolonging of prostration, rising by night, avoidance of the forbidden, waiting for the relief with patience, goodness of companionship, good neighborly relations, exertion in the good, refraining from harm, and delight of the face and advice and mercy for the believers.


والوضوء كما أمر الله في كتابه غسل الوجه واليدين ومسح الرأس والرجلين واحد فريضة واثنان إسباغ ومن زاد أثم ولم يوجر ولا ينقض الوضوء إلا الريح والبول والغائط والنوم والجنابةومن مسح على الخفين فقد خالف الله ورسوله وكتابه ولم يجز عنه وضوء‌ه وذلك أن عليا عليه السلام خالف القوم في المسح على الخفينفقال له عمررأيت النبي صلى الله عليه واله يمسحفقال علي عليه السلامقبل نزول سورة المائدة أو بعدها؟ قال لا أدريقال علي عليه السلام: " لكني أدري أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله لم يمسح على خفيه مذ نزلت سورة المائدة ". 


The wudu is as Allah commanded in His book: washing of the face and the arms, and wiping of the head and the feet – once as an obligation, and twice as a proper observance.  Whoever adds (to that) has sinned and is not rewarded.  Nothing breaks the wudu but (breaking of the) wind, urination, defecation, sleep and janaba.  Whoever wipes upon the khuffayn (footwear) has opposed Allah and His Messenger and His Book, and his wudu is not summarized (i.e. completed) for him.  And that is because `Ali عليه السلام opposed the group in the wiping upon the khuffayn.  So `Umar said to him: I saw the Prophet صلى الله عليه واله wiping.  So `Ali عليه السلام said: Prior to the revelation of Sura al-Ma’ida or after it?  He said: I do not know.  `Ali عليه السلام said: But I know that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله did not wipe upon his khuffayn since Sura al-Ma’ida was revealed.


والاغتسال من الجنابة والاحتلام والحيض، وغسل من غسل الميت فرضوالغسل يوم الجمعةوالعيدين ودخول مكة والمدينةوغسل الزيارةوغسل الاحرامويوم عرفةو أول ليلة من شهر رمضانوليلة تسع عشرة منهوإحدى وعشرينوثلاث وعشرين منه سنة.


Ghusl of janaba, (of) nocturnal emission, and menstruation, and the ghusl of someone who gives ghusl to the deceased are fard (obligatory).  The ghusl of the day of jum`a, of the two `eids, of entrance to Makka and Madina, the ghusl of ziyara, the ghusl of ihram, the ghusl of the day of `Arafa, of the first night of the month of Ramadan, of its nineteenth night, of the twenty first, and of its twenty third are sunna.


وصلاة الفريضةالظهر أربع ركعاتوالعصر أربع ركعاتوالمغرب ثلاث ركعاتوالعشاء الآخرة أربع ركعاتوالفجر ركعتان، فذلك سبع عشرة ركعة والسنة أربع وثلاثون ركعةمنها ثمان قبل الظهر، وثمان بعدها، وأربع بعد المغرب، وركعتان من جلوس بعد العشاء الآخرة - تعد بواحدة - وثمان في السحر، والوتر ثلاث ركعات وركعتان بعد الوتروالصلاة في أول الاوقاتوفضل الجماعة على الفرد كل ركعة بألفي ركعةولا تصل خلف فاجرولا تقتدي إلا بأهل الولايةولا تصل في جلود الميتةولا جلود السابعوالتقصير في أربع فراسخ، بريد ذاهبا وبريد جائيا، اثنا عشر ميلاوإذا قصرت أفطرتوالقنوت في أربع صلوات، في الغداة والمغرب والعتمة ويوم الجمعة وصلاة الظهر وكل القنوت قبل الركوع و بعد القراء‌ةوالصلاة على الميت خمس تكبيرات وليس في صلاة الجنائز تسليم لان التسليم في الركوع والسجود وليس لصلاة الجنازة ركوع ولا سجود ويربع قبر الميت ولا يسنم والجهر ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم في الصلاة مع فاتحة الكتاب


The farida (mandatory) salat are: zhuhr – four rak`at, `asr – four rak`at, maghrib – three rak`at, the final `isha – four rak`at, and fajr – two rak`at.  So that is seventeen rak`at.  The sunna is thirty four rak`at: of them eight are before zhuhr, eight are after it, four are after maghrib, two rak`at while sitting after the final `isha – counting as one – and eight are in the early morning, the witr – three rak`at, and two rak`at after the witr.  Salat is (preferable) at the onset of the times.  The superiority of jama`a over individual (prayer) is two thousand rak`at for every rak`at.  Do not pray behind a transgressor, and do not follow but the people of walayat.  Do not pray in the hides of carrion, or the hides of predators.  Shortening (i.e. of prayers) is in four farasikh (parasangs, pl. of farsakh) – a barid (distance traversed by the vehicle or animal being ridden) going and a barid coming (back) – twelve miles.  When you shorten, you break your fast.  The qunut is in four prayers: in the morning (i.e. fajr), maghrib, the darkening (i.e. `isha), the day of jum`a, and the salat of zhuhr.  Every qunut is prior to the ruku` and after the qira’at.  The prayer upon the deceased is (with) five takbirat, and there is no taslim in the prayer of the deceased, for the taslim is in the ruku` and sujud, and there is neither ruku` nor sujud in the funeral prayer.  The grave of the deceased is squared and not raised.  Jahr (saying aloud) with bismillahi ‘r-rahmani ‘r-raheem is in the salat with the Fatiha of the Book.


والزكاة المفروضة من كل مائتي درهم خمسة دراهم ولا تجب في ما دون ذلك وفيما زاد في كل أربعين درهما درهم ولا تجب فيما دون الاربعينات شئ ولا تجب حتى يحول الحولولا تعطى إلا أهل الولاية والمعرفةوفي كل عشرين دينارا نصف دينارو الخمس من جميع المال مرة واحدة والعشر من الحنطة والشعير والتمر والزبيبوكل شئ يخرج من الارض من الحبوب إذا بلغت خمسة أوسق ففيه العشر إن كان يسقى سيحاوإن كان يسقى بالدوالي ففيه نصف العشر للمعسر والموسروتخرج من الحبوب القبضة والقبضتان، لان الله لا يكلف نفسا إلا وسعها ولا يكلف العبد فوق طاقتهوالوسق ستون صاعا والصاع ستة أرطال وهو أربعة أمداد والمد رطلان وربع برطل العراقي وقال الصادق عليه السلامهو تسعة أرطال بالعراقي وستة أرطال بالمدني


The mandated zakat is five dirhams in every two hundred dirhams, and it is not obligatory in what is less than that.  And in what is increased (from that) is a dirham in every forty dirhams, and nothing is obligatory in what is less than the forties (meaning it would still be one dirham if the amount over two hundred was anywhere between forty and seventy nine).  It is not obligatory until the year has elapsed.  Do not give but (to) the people of walayat and ma`rifa.  For every twenty dinars it is half a dinar.  The fifth (al-khums) is once from all of the property, and the tenth is from wheat and barley and dates and raisins.  When anything that comes out from the earth, of the grains, reaches five awsaq, then in it is the tenth if it is irrigated by running water (e.g. rivers).  And if it is irrigated by a water-wheel then in it is the fifth (lit. half of the tenth) for the insolvent and the well-to-do (alike).  A handful and two handfuls are taken out from the grains, for Allah does not task a soul but to its ability and He does not task a servant above his capability.  The wasq is sixty sa` and the sa` is six artal (pl. of ritl/ratl) and it is four amdad (pl. of mudd).  The mudd is two rotls and a quarter, by the `Iraqi rotl.  As-Sadiq عليه السلام said: It is nine `Iraqi artal and six Madani artal.


وزكاة الفطر فريضة على رأس كل صغير أو كبير، حر أو عبد من الحنطة نصف صاعومن التمر والزبيب صاعولا يجوز أن تعطى غير أهل الولاية، لانها فريضة.


The zakat of fitr is a farida upon every head, (whether) young or old, (or) free or slave – from wheat, half a sa` and from dates and raisins, a sa`.  It is not permissible to give (it) to other than the people of wilaya, for it is a farida.


وأكثر الحيض عشرة أيام وأقله ثلاثة أياموالمستحاضة تغتسل وتصليو الحائض تترك الصلاة ولا تقضي، وتترك الصيام وتقضيه.


The maximum (limit) of menstruation (al-hayd) is ten days and its minimum (limit) is three days.  The mustahada does ghusl and prays.  The ha’id leaves off salat and does not do qada, and leaves off fasting and does qada of it.


ويصام شهر رمضان لرؤيته ويفطر لرؤيتهولا يجوز التراويح في جماعة و صوم ثلاثة أيام في كل شهر سنة من كل عشرة أيام يوم خميس من العشر الاولوالاربعاء من العشر الاوسطوالخميس من العشر الآخروصوم شعبان حسن وهو سنة وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: " شعبان شهري وشهر رمضان شهر الله " وإن قضيت فائت شهر رمضان متفرقا أجزء‌ك


The month of Ramadan is fasted by its (i.e. the new crescent’s) sighting, and (its fast) is broken by its sighting (i.e. `eid is celebrated by its sighting). The tarawih is not permissible in jama`a.  The fast of three days in every month is a sunna – a day in every ten days – the fifth (day) of the first ten, the fourth (day) from the middle ten, and the fifth (day) from the last ten.  The fasting of Sha`ban is good, and it is sunna.  The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: Sha`ban is my month and the month of Ramadan is the month of Allah.  If you do the qada of the missed (fasts) of the month of Ramadan separately it is better for you (lit. more sufficing of you) (i.e. not in the days of these recommended fasts).


وحج البيت من استطاع إليه سبيلا والسبيل زاد وراحلةولا يجوز الحج إلا متمتعا ولا يجوز الافراد والقران الذي تعمله العامةوالاحرام دون الميقات لا يجوزقال الله: " وأتموا الحج والعمرة لله " ولا يجوز في النسك الخصي، لانه ناقص ويجوز الموجوء


The hajj of the House is (an obligation on) whoever is able to (find) a way to it, and the way is provision and a riding camel (fem.).  The hajj is not permitted but as tamattu` (joined with `umra) and the ifrad and the qiran that the `Aamma know are not permitted.  The ihram apart from (donning at) the miqat is not permitted.  Allah said, “And complete the hajj and the `umra for Allah” (2:196). The castrate (i.e. as the sacrificial animal) is not permitted in the rite, for it is deficient.  The mawju’ (an animal whose testicles have been bruised to have the same effect as castration) is permitted.


والجهاد مع إمام عادلومن قاتل فقتل دون ماله ورحله ونفسه فهو شهيد ولا يحل قتل أحد من الكفار في دار التقية إلا قاتل أو باغ وذلك اذا لم تحذر على نفسك ولا أكل أموال الناس من المخالفين وغيرهموالتقية في دار التقية واجبةولا حنث على من حلف تقية يدفع بها ظلما عن نفسه


Jihad is with a just Imam.  Whoever fights and is slain in defence of his property, his baggage (or, saddle) and his self, he is a martyr.  And it is not allowed to kill (any) one of the kuffar in the realm of taqiyya except for a murderer or an aggressor and that is when you had not been fearful for your own life (i.e. for your own safety), and (it is) not (allowed) to consume the properties of the people from the opponents and those beside them.  And taqiyya in the realm of taqiyya is obligatory.  And there is no perjury upon the one who would takes an oath in taqiyya, to repel oppression from himself thereby.


والطلاق بالسنة على ماذكر الله عزوجل وسنة نبيه صلى الله عليه واله ولا يكون طلاق بغير سنة وكل طلاق يخالف لكتاب فليس بطلاق وكل نكاح يخالف السنة فليس بنكاحولا تجمع بين أكثر من أربع حرائروإذا طلقت المرأة ثلاث مرات للسنة لم تحل له حتى تنكح زوجا غيرهوقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: " اتقوا المطلقات ثلاثا فإنهن ذوات أزواج ". 


Divorce by the sunna is (only valid) as per what Allah عزوجل mentioned and the Sunna of His prophet صلى الله عليه واله.  Divorce is not (valid) through other than the Sunna. Every divorce that opposes the Book is not a divorce.  Every marriage that opposes the Sunna is not a marriage.  More than four freewomen are not combined.  When the wife is divorced three times for (i.e. by) the Sunna, she is not allowed for him until she marries a husband other than him.  Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام said: Beware the thrice divorced women for verily they are married.


والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه واله في كل المواطن عند الرياح والعطاس وغير ذلك


The prayer upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه واله is in every place: with winds, sneezing, and other than that.


وحب أولياء الله وأوليائهم وبغض أعدائه والبراء‌ة منهم ومن أئمتهم


Love of the awliya (pl. of wali) of Allah and their awliya, and hatred of His enemies and bara’at from them and from their Imams.


وبر الوالدين، وإن كانا مشركين فلا تطعهما وصاحبهما في الدنيا معروفا لان الله يقول: " اشكر لي ولوالديك إلي المصير * وإن جاهداك على أن تشرك بي ما ليس لك به علم فلا تطعهما " قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: " ما صاموا لهم ولا صلوا ولكن أمروهم بمعصية الله فأطاعوهم، ثم قالسمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله يقولمن أطاع مخلوقا في غير طاعة الله عزوجل فقد كفر واتخذ إلها من دون الله ". 


Goodness towards parents.  If they are mushriks, do not obey them.  Befriend them in the world in a good manner, for Allah says “Give thanks to Me and to your parents; to Me is the homecoming.  But if they strive with you to make you associate with Me that whereof you have no knowledge, then do not obey them” (31:14-15).  Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام said: They do not fast for them nor do they pray to them rather they commanded them to the disobedience of Allah and they obeyed them.  Then he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله say: Whoever obeys a creation in disobedience to Allah عزوجل has done kufr and taken a god apart from Allah.


وذكاة الجنين ذكاة امه


The legal slaughter of the fetus is the legal slaughter of its mother.


وذنوب الانبياء صغار موهوبة لهم بالنبوة


The minor sins of the prophets are granted to them due to prophethood.


والفرائض على ما أمر الله لا عول فيها ولا يرث مع الوالدين والولد أحد إلا الزوج والمرأةوذو السهم أحق ممن لا سهم له وليست العصبة من دين الله


The fara’id (apportioned inheritances) are as per what Allah commanded, there is no reduction (`awl) it, and none inherits along with the parents and the child except for the husband and the wife.  The owner of the share has a greater right than one who has no share.  And `asabah is not from the religion of Allah.


والعقيقة عن المولود الذكر والانثى يوم السابعويحلق رأسه يوم السابعويسمى يوم السابعويتصدق بوزن شعره ذهبا أو فضة يوم السابع


The `aqiqa for the newborn, male and female, is on the seventh day.  Its head is shaven on the seventh day. It is named on the seventh day.  And charity is given by the weight of its hair in gold or silver on the seventh day.


وأن أفعال العباد مخلوقة خلق تقدير، لا خلق تكوينولا تقل بالجبر ولا بالتفويض، ولا يأخذ الله عزوجل البرئ بجرم السقيم، ولا يعذب الله الابناء والاطفال بذنوب الآباء وإنه قال: " ولا تزر وازرة وزر اخرى ". " وأن ليس للانسان إلا ما سعى " والله يغفر ولا يظلمولا يفرض الله على العباد طاعة من يعلم أنه يظلمهم و يغويهمولا يختار لرسالته ويصطفي من عباده من يعلم أنه يكفر ويعبد الشيطان من دونه


And that the acts of the servants are created – a creation of measure (khalq taqdir), not a creation of bringing into being (khalq takwin).  Do not profess compulsion (al-jabr) or delegation (at-tafwid).  Allah عزوجل does not bring the innocent to account for the offense of the sick (at heart), and Allah does not punish the sons and the children for the sins of the fathers.  Verily He said, “And no bearer shall bear the burden of another” (6:164 et al), “And that man shall not have save what he strives for” (53:40).  Allah forgives and does not wrong.  Allah does not oblige obedience upon the servants towards one who He knows will oppress them and lead them astray.  He does not choose for His message or select from His servants one who He knows will do kufr and worship the Shaytan apart from Him.


وأن الاسلام غير الايمانوكل مؤمن مسلم وليس كل مسلم مؤمنالا يسرق السارق حين يسرق وهو مؤمنولا يشرب الشارب حين يشرب الخمر وهو مؤمن ولا يقتل النفس التي حرم الله بغير الحق وهو مؤمنوأصحاب الحدود لا بمؤمنين ولا بكافرينوأن الله لا يدخل النار مؤمنا وقد وعده الجنة والخلود فيها ومن وجبت له النار بنفاق أو فسق أو كبيرة من الكبائر لم يبعث مع المؤمنين ولا منهمولا تحيط جهنم إلا بالكافرينوكل إثم دخل صاحبه بلزومه النار فهو فاسقومن أشرك، أو كفر، أو نافق، أو أتى كبيرة من الكبائروالشفاعة جائزة للمستشفعينوالامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر باللسان واجب.  


And that Islam is different from Iman.  Every believer (mu’min) is a Muslim but not every Muslim is a believer.  The thief does not steal while he steals and (yet) remain a believer.  The drunkard does not drink while he is drinking wine and (yet) remain a believer.  One does not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden unjustly and (still) be a believer.  The people of the hudud (legal punishments) are neither believers nor unbelievers (kafirin).  And that Allah will not make a believer enter into the Fire while He has promised him the Garden and immortality in it.  For whomsoever the Fire has been made obligatory due to hypocrisy or corruption or a great sin from the greater sins is neither raised with the believers nor is from among them.  Hell will not encompass but the kafirin.  Every sin which necessitates its master to be made to enter the Fire then he is a fasiq (? error in print?) – whoever does shirk or kufr or commits hypocrisy or comes with a great sin from the greater sins.  Intercession is a reward for the ones seeking intercession.  Commanding to the good and prohibiting evil by the tongue is obligatory.


والايمان أداء الفرائض واجتناب المحارموالايمان هو معرفة بالقلب وإقرار باللسان وعمل بالاركان


Faith (al-iman) is the fulfillment of the obligations and avoidance of the prohibitions.  And faith is recognition by the heart, affirmation by the tongue, and action as per the basic principles.


والتكبير في الاضحى خلف عشر صلوات يبتدأ من صلاة الظهر من يوم النحر وفي الفطر في خمس صلوات يبتدأ بصلاة المغرب من ليلة الفطر


Takbir in the (`eid of) adha follows after ten salawat (prayers), beginning from the salat of zhuhr of the day of the slaughtering, and in the (`eid of) fitr after five salawat beginning with the salat of maghrib from the eve of fitr.


والنفساء تقعد عشرين يوما لا أكثر منها فإن طهرت قبل ذلك صلت وإلا فإلى عشرين يوما، ثم تغتسل وتصلي وتعمل عمل المستحاضة


The nafsa’ (women undergoing nifas, i.e. post-partum bleeding, lochia) sits (i.e. refrains from salat) for twenty days, no more than it.  So if she becomes pure prior to that she prays, otherwise (she observes) upto twenty days.  Then she does ghusl and prays and acts with the act of the mustahada.


ويؤمن بعذاب القبر ومنكر ونكيروالبعث بعد الموتوالحسابوالميزان والصراطوالبراء‌ة من أئمة الضلال وأتباعهموالموالات لاولياء الله وتحريم الخمر قليلها وكثيرهاوكل مسكر خمروكل ما أسكر كثيره فقليله حراموالمضطر لا يشرب الخمر فإنها تقتلهوتحريم كل ذي ناب من السباع وكل ذي مخلب من الطيروتحريم الطحال فإنه دموالجري والطافي والمارماهي والزمير وكل شئ لا يكون له قشورومن الطير ما لا تكون له قانصة ومن البيض كل ما اختلف طرفاه فحلال أكله وما استوى طرفاه فحرام أكله


The punishment of the grave is believed in, and Munkar and Nakir, the resurrection after death, the accounting, the scales and the bridge, bara’at from the Imams of misguidance and their followers, giving walaya to the awliya of Allah, the forbiddance of wine (al-khamr), whether a little of it or a lot, and every intoxicant is khamr and all whose excess intoxicates, then a little of it (also) is haram, and the one who is in a state of necessity (compelled) should not drink wine (either), for it will kill him, and the forbiddance of every possessor of fang from the predators and every possessor of talon from the birds, the forbiddance of the spleen for it is blood, and the catfish, the floater (i.e. a dead fish floating on water), the moray eel, the zamir (?) and everything that does not have scales, from the birds those which do not have a gizzard, and from the eggs all of whose ends vary, then its eating is halal and all of whose ends are even, then its eating is haram.


واجتناب الكبائر، وهي قتل النفس التي حرم الله، وشرب الخمروعقوق الوالدينوالفرار من الزحفوأكل مال اليتامى ظلماوأكل الميتة، والدم، ولحم الخنزير، وما اهل به لغير الله من غير ضرورة بهوأكل الربا والسحت بعد البينةوالميسروالبخس في الميزان والمكيالوقذف المحصناتوالزناواللواطوالشهادات الزورواليأس من روح اللهوالامن من مكر اللهوالقنوط من رحمة اللهومعاونة الظالمين والركون إليهمواليمين الغموسوحبس الحقوق من غير عسروالكبروالكفروالاسرافوالتبذيروالخيانة وكتمان الشهادة والملاهي التي تصد عن ذكر الله مثل الغناء وضرب الاوتاروالاصرار على الصغاير من الذنوب


And avoidance of the major sins, and they are: killing the soul which Allah has forbidden, drinking wine, filial impiety, fleeing from the battlefield, consuming the property of orphans unjustly, eating carrion, blood, flesh of swine, and whatever has been consecrated in the name of other than Allah unnecessarily, consuming usury and ill-gotten gains after the evidence, gambling, lowering in the scale and measure (i.e. cheating), slandering the chaste women, fornication, sodomy, perjury, despairing of (receiving) the comfort of Allah, security from the stratagem of Allah, despondency from the mercy of Allah, aiding the oppressors and relying on them, the false oath, the repression of rights despite being in ease, arrogance, kufr, wastefulness, extravagance, cheating/betrayal, concealment of testimony, the amusements that indispose one from the remembrance of Allah such as singing (al-ghina) and the striking of chords/strings (guitars etc), and persistence on the minor (ones) from the sins.  


فهذا اصول الدينوالحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله على نبيه وآله وسلم تسليما.      


So these are the roots of religion.  Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and may Allah bless His Prophet and his family, and salute (him) with a becoming salutation (of peace).