Chapter 35

باب القسامه


Qasama


405 – أحمد بن محمد [ عن ] عبد الله بن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام إنه سئل عن القسامة هل جرت فيها سنة؟ قال: نعم، وكان رجلان من الانصار يصيبان الثمار فتفرقا فوجد أحدهما ميتا فقال أصحابه: قتل صاحبنا اليهودي، فقال لهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أحلفوا اليهود. قالوا: كيف نحلف على أخينا قوما كفارا؟ قال: احلفوا أنتم. قالوا: نحلف على ما لا نعلم ولم نشهد. فوداه رسول الله. قلت: كيف كانت القسامة؟ قال: هي حق، ولولا ذلك لقتل الناس بعضهم بعضا، وإنما القسامة حوط [ يحاط ] به الناس


405 – Ahmad b. Muhammad from `Abdullah b. Sinan from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام that he was asked about oath-taking, has a sunna been brought about in it?  He said: Yes.  There were two men from the Ansar who were getting fruit, so they separated and one of them was found dead.  So his companions said: The Jew killed our companion.  So the Messenger of Allah صلّى اللّه عليه و آله said to them: Take an oath from the Jews.  They said: How will we take an oath upon our brother from a people of unbelievers?  He said: Take an oath you.  They said: (Shall) we swear upon what we do not know and did not witness?  So the Messenger of Allah paid his bloodwit.  

I said: How was the qasama?  He said: It is true (or: a right).  And were it not for that, the people would have killed one another.  And qasama is only a wall, the people being hemmed in by it.


406 – وعنه في رجل مات وهو جالس مع قوم، أو وجد متيا، أو قتيلا في قبيلة من القبائل أو على باب دار قوم، قال: ليس عليهم شئ، ولا تبطل ديته ولكن يعقل.


406 – And from him regarding a man who died while he was sitting with a group, or he was found dead, or killed in a tribe from the tribes, or upon the gate of the door of a group.  He said: There is nothing upon them and his diyya is not voided however the bloodwit is paid for him.


407 – قال: ويرد في الشهادة، الظنين والمتهم


407 – He said: And in testimony the suspicious and the accused are disallowed.


408 – وقال في المكاتب إذا شهد في الطلاق وقد أعتق نصفه، قال: إن كان معه رجل وأمرأة جازت شهادته


408 – And he said regarding the mukatib (the slave who purchases his freedom from his master for a price) when he has witnessed in divorce and half of him has been emancipated.  He said: If there is a man and a woman with him, his testimony is permissible.


409 – وقال: الغلام إذا أدركه الموت ولم يدرك مبلغ الرجال وأوصى جازت وصيته لذوي الارحام ولم يجز لغيرهم . ولا يجوز شهادة ولد الزنا وشهادة النساء في الطلاق. قال: ويغرم شاهد الزور بقدر ما شهد عليه من ماله


409 – And he said: When death has reached the boy and he had not reached the maturity of men and he bequeathed, his will is permissible for the relatives and not permissible for other than them.  And the testimony of the walad az-zina and the testimony of women are not permissible in divorce.  He said: The false witness is fined in proportion to what he testified upon from his wealth. 


410 – أبي قال: [ قضى ] رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بشهادة الواحد ويمين الخصم، وأما في الهلال فلا إلا شاهدي عدل. ويجوز شهادة النساء في كل ما لم يجز للرجال النظر إليه


410 – My father said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله ruled by the testimony of the one (person) and the oath of the litigant.  But as to in the crescent then no, (it is) not but two just witnesses.  And the testimony of women is permissible in all that it is not permissible for men to look at.


411 - ابن مسلم [ عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام، قال: ] قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: لم تجز شهادة الصبي ولا خصم ولا متهم ولا ظنين. وإذا سمع الرجل شهادة ولم يشهد عليها فهو بالخيار إن شاء شهد، وإن شاء سكت. والرجل يدعي ولا بينة له يستحلف المدعي عليه، فإن رد اليمين على المدعي فأبى أن يحلف فلا حق له. والصبي يشهد ثم يدرك فإن بقي على موضع الشهادة، وكذلك المملوك والمشرك


411 – Ibn Muslim from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام, he said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: The testimony of the child is not permissible nor the litigant nor the accused nor the suspicious.  And when the man has heard a testimony and he did not witness it, then he has the choice if he wants to testify and if he wants to be silent.  And the man (who) alleges while he has no evidence for him adjures the one alleged against.  So if the oath has arrived upon the one alleged (against), and he refused to swear, then he has no right.  And the child testifies then understands so if he remained upon the place of his testimony (trans. of phrase unclear), and thus the slave and the mushrik.


412 - أبي قال وكان علي عليه السلام إذا أتاه عدة وعدلهم واحد، أقرع بينهم أيهم وقعت اليمين عليه استحلفهم وقال: اللهم رب السماوات السبع أيهم كان الحق له فأده إليه، ثم يجعل الحق للذي يصير اليمين عليه إذا حلف.


412 – My father said: And when a group would come to `Ali عليه السلام and their just person was one, he would order them to cast lots between them which of them the oath would befall upon (and?) adjure them.  And he said: Allahumma, Lord of the seven heavens, whichever of them the right is for, then render it to him.  Then he would put the right for the one who the oath happened to if he swore.