Chapter 36

باب [ الكسب: الحرام والحلال، التجارة والاجارة ]


Earnings: the forbidden and lawful, trade and hiring out


413 - قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ما خلق الله حلالا ولا حراما إلا وله حدود كحدود الدار، فما كان من حدود الدار فهو من الدار، حتى أرش الخدش فما سواه، والجلدة ونصف الجلدة. وإن رجلا أربى دهرا من الدهور فخرج قاصدا أبا جعفر عليه السلام فسأله عن ذلك؟ فقال له: مخرجك من كتاب الله، يقول الله (فمن جاءه موعظة من ربه فانتهى فله ما سلف) والموعظة هي التوبة، فجهله بتحريمه ثم معرفته به فما مضى فحلال، وما بقي فليحفظ.


413 – Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: Allah has not created a halal or a haram but that it has bounds like the bounds of the home.  So whatever is from the bounds of the home, then it is from the home, even the indemnity of a scratch and whatever is equal to it, and the lash and the half lash.

A man engaged in usury for a long period of time, so he went out going to Abu Ja`far عليه السلام and he asked him about that.  So he said to him: Your way out is from the Book of Allah.  Allah says “so he to whom the admonition from his Lord has come, if he desists, what has gone before is his” (2:75) And the admonition is repentance.  So (with?) his ignorance of its forbiddance then his recognition of it, then what has passed is lawful, and what remains he is to guard.


414 – أبي قال: وقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: لا يكون الربا إلا فيما يوزن أو يكال، ومن أكله جاهلا بتحريم الله له لم يكن عليه شئ. وقول الله: (لا تأكلوا أموالكم بينكم بالباطل) قال: ذلك القمار، (ولا تقتلوا أنفسكم) قال: نزل ذلك في الرجل يحمل على المشركين حتى يقتل


414 – My father said: And Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: There is no usury save in what is weighed or measured. And one who consumed it out of ignorance of the forbiddance of Allah for it, there is nothing upon him.  And the saying of Allah “and consume not your wealth among yourselves vainly” He said: That is gambling. “And do not kill yourselves” (4:29) He said: That was sent down regarding the man attacking the mushrikeen until he is killed.


415 - قال: وكان للعباس مال مضاربة فكان يشترط ألا يركبوا بحرا، ولا ينزلوا واديا، فإن فعلتم فأنتم ضامنون وأبلغ ذلك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله، فأجاز شرطه عليهم


415 – He said: al-`Abbas had mudariba wealth, so he would stipulate that they would not embark a sea or descend a wadi, so if you did so then you are guarantors.  And that reached the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله and he permitted his stipulation upon them.

Translator's note: A mudariba is a profit-sharing contract of trust financing.


416 - وقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: درهم ربا أعظم عند الله من أربعين زنية.


416 – And Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: A dirham of usury is greater (i.e. worse) with Allah than forty acts of fornication.


417 - وقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: درهم ربا أعظم من عشرين زنية بذات محرم


417 – And Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: A dirham of usury is greater than twenty acts of fornication with prohibited relation.


418 – قال: وسئل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام عن شري الخيانة والسرقة؟ قال: إذا عرفت ذلك فلا تشتره إلا من العمال.


418 – He said: And Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام was about the purchase of deception and theft.  He said: When you know that then do not purchase it except from the tax-collectors.


419 - وقيل لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: الرجل يطلب من الرجل متاعا بعشرة آلاف درهم وليس عنده إلا بمقدار ألف درهم، فيأخذ من جيرانه، ومعامليه ثم شراء أو عارية ويوفيه، ثم يشتريه منه أو ممن يشتريه منه فيرده على أصحابه. قال: لا بأس


419 – And it was said to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام: The man seeks good from the man by thousands of dirhams, and he does not have but the quantity of a thousand dirhams with him.  So he takes from his neighbors, and his workers (?), then either by purchase or by loan it is fulfilled for him, then he purchases it form him or from someone who purchases it from him, and he pays it back to his companions.  He said: There is no harm.


420 - جدي الصادق عليه السلام. وسئل عن السهام التي يضربها القصابون، فكرهها إذا وقع بينهم أفضل من سهم


420 – as-Sadiq عليه السلام was given a present (?), and he was about the shares which the meatmen strike, and he disliked it if better than a share befell between them.


421 – عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: لا بأس بجوائز السلطان


421 – From Abu Ja`far عليه السلام, he said: There is no harm with the awards of the sultan.


422 - وسئل عن رجل أخذ مالا مضاربة أيحل له أن يعطيه آخر بأقل مما أخذه؟ قال: لا. قال: ولا يشتري الرجل مما يتصدق به وإن تصدق بمسكنه على قرابته سكن معهم إن شاء، والسمسار يشتري للرجل بأجر فيقول له: خذ ما شئت واترك ما شئت؟ قال: لا بأس. وعن الخبز بعضها أكبر من بعض؟ قال: لا بأس إذا قرضته. قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: السحت الربا


422 – And he was asked about a man who took mudariba wealth, is it lawful for him to give it to another by less than what he took of it.  He said: No.  He said: And the man does not purchase from what give charity by.  And if he gave charity by a dwelling upon his relatives, he lives with them if he wants.  

And the broker purchasing for the man by a wage, so he says to him: Take what you want and leave what you want?  He said: There is no harm.

And about bread, some of it being large than some?  He said: There is no harm when you bit it.

Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: The unlawful (as-suht) is usury (ar-riba).


423 - ابن مسكان، عن محمد الحلبي، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: حدثني  أبي أن أباه حدثه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أعطى خيبر [ بالنصف أرضها ونخلها فلما ] أدركت [ الثمرة ] بعث عبد الله بن رواحة فقوم عليهم قيمة، فقال: إما أن تأخذوا وتعطون نصف الثمن، وإما آخذه وأعطيكم نصف الثمن؟ فقالوا: بهذا قامت السماوات والارض


423 – Ibn Muskan from Muhammad al-Halabi from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: My father narrated to me that his father narrated to him that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله was given Khaybar by half of its land and its dates.  So when the fruit ripened, he sent `Abdullah b. Rawaha and he was in valued upon them a value.  So he said: Either you take and give half of the price, or I take it and give you half of the price.  So they said: By this have the Heavens and the Earth stood.


424 - ابن مسلم، قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن شرى أرض اليهود والنصارى؟ قال: لا بأس، قد ظهر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله على [ أهل ] خيبر فحادثهم على أن يترك الارض في أيديهم ويعمرونها وما بها بأس إن أشتريت، وأي قوم أحيوا منها فهم أحق به وهو لهم


424 – Ibn Muslim said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام about the purchase of the land of Jews and Christians.  He said: There is no harm.  The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله had conquered the people of Khaybar and conversed with them upon that he leave the land in their hands and they inhabit it.  And there is no harm if you purchase.  And whichever people revive it, then they have the most right to it and it is for them.


425 - قال: وكان علي عليه السلام يكتب إلى عماله: لا تسخروا المسلمين فتذلوهم ومن سألكم غير الفريضة فقد اعتدى، ويوصي بالاكارين - وهم الفلاحون -. 


425 – He said: And `Ali عليه السلام used to write to his tax-collectors: Do not constrain the Muslims and so humiliate them.  And whoever asks you other than the farida then he has violated.  And he advised (or: bequeathed) the cultivators – and they are the farmers.


426 - ولا يصلح أن يقبل أرض بثمر مسمى ولكن بالنصف و الثلث والربع والخمس لا بأس به


426 – And it is not appropriate to accept a land by named fruit, however by the half, and the third, and the fourth, and the fifth there is no harm with it.


427 - وسئل عن مزارعة المسلم المشرك يكون من المسلم البذر جريب من طعام أو أقل أو أكثر فيأتيه رجل آخر فيقول: خذ مني نصف البذر، ونصف النفقة وأشركني؟ قال: لا بأس. قلت: الذي زرعه في الارض لم يشتره إنما هو شئ كان عنده، قال: يقومه قيمة كما يباع يؤمئذ، ثم يأخذ نصف القيمة ونصف النفقة ويشاركه .


427 – And he was asked about the muzara`a (cultivation contract between the owner of a land and a farmer) of the Muslim (with) the mushrik.  From the Muslim is the seeds, a field of food, or less or more, and another man comes to him and says: Take half of the seed from me, and half of the cost, and partner with me.  He said: There is no harm.  I said: The one who cultivated it in the land did not purchase it, it was only something that was with him.  He said: He values it by a value as it was sold that day (?), then he takes half of the value and half of the cost and partners with him.


428 – وسألته عليه السلام عن الرجل يكون له السرب  في شراكة أيحل له بيعه؟ قال: له بيعه بورق أو بشعير أو بحنطة أو بما شاء


428 – And I asked him عليه السلام about the man who has the flock in a partnership, is it lawful for him to sell it?  He said: Its sale is for him by leafage or by barley or by wheat or by whatever he wants.


429 – وقال في رجل زرع أرض غيره، فقال: ثلث للارض، وثلث للبقر وثلث للبذر. قال: لا يسمى بذرا ولا بقرا: ولكن يقول: أزرع فيها كذا، إن شئت نصفا أو ثلثا


429 – And he said regarding a man who cultivated the land of someone else.  So he said: A third is for the land, and a third is for the cattle, and a third is for the seeds.  He said: He does not name seeds or cattle, rather he says: I cultivate in it thusly, if I want as half or as a third.


430 - وعن أرض خربة عمرها رجل وكسح أنهارها، هل عليه فيها صدقة؟ قال: إن كان يعرف صاحبها، فليؤد إليه حقه .


430 – And about a wasteland which a man inhabited and cleaned out its rivers, is there a sadaqa upon him in it?  He said: If he knows its owner, then he is to render to him his right.


431 - وعن رجل يستأجر أرضا فيؤاجرها بأكثر من ذلك؟ قال: ليس به بأس، إن الارض ليست بمنزلة البيت والاجير، إن البيت و الاجير حرام


431 – And about a man who rented a land, and he rented it out for more than that.  He said: There is no harm with it, land is not of the status of the house and the worker.  The house and the worker are forbidden.


432 – ومن اشترى أرض اليهود وجب عليه ما يجب عليهم من خراجها، وأي أرض ادعاها أهل الخراج لا يشتريها المشتري إلا برضاهم


432 – And one who purchases land of the Jews, whatever is obligatory upon them from its kharaj (land-tax) is obligatory upon him.  And whatever land the people of kharaj claim, the purchaser does not purchase save with their consent. 


433 – وأي رجل يشتري  دارا فيها زيادة من الطريق قبل شرائه إياها فإن شراءه جائز


433 – And whatever man purchases a home in which there is excess from the road prior to his purchase of it, then his purchase is permissible.


434 - ومن استأجر أرضا بألف، وآجر بعضها بمائتين، ثم قال له صاحب الارض الذي آجرها: إني أدخل معك فيها بالذي استأجرت مني فنفقا جميعا فما كان من فضل فهو بينهم، كان ذلك جائزا .


434 – And one who rented a land by a thousand, and he rented out some of it by two hundred, then the owner of the land who rented out to him said to him: I will enter with you in it by what you rented from me.  So they both sold well (?), and what was in excess was between them.  That is permissible.


435 – وعن رجل أستأجر أرضا بمائة دينار فآجر بعضها بتسع وتسعين دينارا وعمل في الباقي؟ قال: لا بأس


435 – And about a man who rented a land by a hundred dinar, and he rented out some of it by ninety nine dinar, and he worked in the remainder?  He said: There is no harm.


436 - والمزارعة على النصف جائزة، قد زارع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله على أن عليهم المؤنة


436 – And the muzara`a upon half is permissible.  The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله had done muzara`a upon (the stipulation) that the provisions be upon them.


437 - أبو عبد الله عليه السلام سئل عن القرية في أيدي أهل الذمة، لا يدري أهي لهم أم لا؟ سألوا رجلا من المسلمين قبضها من أيديهم وأدى خراجها فما فضل فهو له قال: ذلك جائز


437 – Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام was asked about the town which is in the hands of the people of dhimma, it not being known whether it is theirs or not.  They asked a man from the Muslims to take it from their hands and render its kharaj, and what is left over would be his.  He said: That is permissible.


438 – وسئل عن العلوج إذا كانوا في قرية، وعليهم خراج الرؤوس، يؤخذ منهم المائة ودون ذلك وأكثر، وكيف اعاملهم؟ قال: اصنع بهم من صالح ما تصنع بأهل البلد، فإنه ليس لهم ذمة


438 – And he was asked about the unbelievers who are in a town, and the kharaj of the heads is upon them, the hundred being taken from them and less than that and more, and how do we handle them?  He said: Do with them from what is suitable (?) of what you do with the people of the country, for there is dhimma for them.


439 – وسئل عن رجل ترك أيتاما ولهم ضيعة بيبعون عصيرها لمن يجعل  خمرا، ويؤاجر أرضها بالطعام؟ قال: أما بيع العصير ممن يجعله خمرا فلا بأس، وأما إجارة الارض بالطعام فلا يجوز، ولا يؤخذ منها شيئا إلا أن يؤاجر بالنصف والثلث


439 – And he was asked about a man who left behind orphans, and they have an estate, selling its squeezed-out juice to someone who would make wine, and renting out its land by food.  He said: As to selling the squeezed-out juice to someone who makes it wine, there is no harm.  And as to renting out the land by food, it is not permissible, and one does not take anything from it unless one rents out by the half and the third.


440 – قال: لا يؤاجر الارض بالحنطة والشعير و (الاربعوهو السرب)  - ولا بالنطافوهو فضلات المياه ، ولكن بالذهب والفضة إذا استأجرها بالذهب والفضة فلا يؤجر بأكثر، لان الذهب والفضة مضمون وهذا ليس بمضمون، وهو مما أخرجت الارض


440 – He said: Land is not rented out by wheat and barley and the arba` – and it is the flock – or by the nitaf – and it is the leftovers of waters, rather by gold and silver when one rented it by gold and silver.  And it is not rented out by more, for gold and silver are guaranteed while this is not guaranteed, and it from what is the land produces.


441 - وإن استبان لك ثمرة الارض سنة أو أكثر صلح إجارتها، وإلا لم يصلح ذلك


441 – And if the fruit of the land became apparent for you for a year or more, its renting out is appropriate, otherwise that is not appropriate.


442 – وإن يقبل الرجل أرضا على أن يعمرها ويردها عامرة بعد سنين معلومة على أن له ما أكل منها، فلا بأس .


442 – And if the man accepts a land upon (the stipulation) that he will inhabit it and return it inhabited after two known years upon (the stipulation) that whatever is eaten from it is his, there is no harm. 


443 - وسئل عن المتقبل أرضا وقرية علوجا بمال معلوم؟ قال: أكره أن يسمي العلوج، فإن [ لميسم علوجا فلا بأس به


443 – And he was asked about the recipient of a land and a town of unbelievers by determined wealth.  He said: I dislike that the unbelievers be named.  And if he did not name the unbelievers, then there is no harm with it.


444 - وليس للرجل أن يتناول من ثمر بستان أو أرض إلا بإذن صاحبه إلا أن يكون مضطرا. قلت: فإنه يكون في البستان الاجير والمملوك؟ قال: ليس [ لهأن يتناوله إلا بإذن صاحبه .


444 – And it is not (allowed) for the man to pick from the fruit of an orchard or a land except by the permission of its owner unless he is obliged.  I said: So (if) the hired man and the slaves are in the orchard?  He said: It is not (allowed) for him to pick it except by the permission of its owner.