Chapter 37

باب كفارة الايمان


Atonement for the oath


445 - يحيى بن عمران، عن أبيه، عن عبد الله بن سليمان، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: من حلف على يمين صبر فقطع بها مال امرئ مسلم فإنما قطع جذوة من النار.


445 – Yahya b. `Imran from his father from `Abdullah b. Sulayman from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: One who was sworn upon an enforced oath, and by it he cut the wealth of a Muslim man, then he has only cut an ember from the Fire.


446 - وعن العلاء، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله اللهم إنما أنا بشر أغضب وأرضى، فأيما مؤمن حرمته، وأقضيته ودعوت عليه فاجعله كفارة وطهورا وأيما كان (قويته)، أو حبوته ، أو أعطيته، أو دعوت له ولا يكون لها أهلا، فاجعل ذلك عليه عذابا ووبالا.


446 – And from al-`Ala from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: Allahumma, I am only a human being.  I become angry and I become pleased.  So whichever believer You have sanctified, and decreed (?) for him, and I have prayed against him, so make him an atonement and a purification.  And whichever I have strengthened him, or drawn near him, or given to him, or prayed for him, and he is not worthy of it, then make that a punishment and an evil result upon him.


447 - وعنه قال: لا يستحلف العبد إلا على علمه .

قال في قوله: ﴿ولا تجعلوا الله عرضة لايمانكم  قال: لا والله وبلى والله .

وسألته عن قول الله ﴿فلا اقسم بمواقع النجومقال: عظم إثم من يقسم بها قال: وكان أهل الجاهلية يعظمون الحرم ولا يقسمون به ويستحلون حرمة الله فيه، ولا يعرضون لمن كان فيه ولا يخرجون منه دابة.

فقال الله: ﴿لا اقسم بهذا البلد وأنت حل بهذا البلد ووالد وما ولد . قال: يعظمون البلد أن يحلفوا به، ويستحلون حرمة رسول الله فيه .

وقول الرجل: (لا بل شانئك) فإن ذلك قسم أهل الجاهلية، فلو حلف به الرجل وهو يريد الله كان قسما.

وأما قوله: (لعمرو الله) و (وأيم الله) فإنما هو بالله، وقولهم: (يا هناه) و (ياهماه) فإن ذلك طلب الاسم .


447 – And from him, he said: The servant is not adjured save upon his knowledge.

He said regarding His saying “Do not make Allah a hindrance through your oaths” (2:224) He said: “No, by Allah”, and “Yea, by Allah.”

And I asked him about the saying of Allah “So I do not swear by the locale (mawqi`) of the stars” (56:75) He said: A great sin whoever swears by it.  He said: And the people of Jahiliyya would venerate the Haram and not swear by it, while they would deem lawful the inviolability of Allah in it, and they would not present to the one who was in it and not take out a riding animal from it.

So Allah said “I do not swear by this city, and you are dweller of this city, and the begetter and what he begot” (90:1-3) He said: They (would) venerate the city that they (would thus not) swear by it, while they would deem the inviolability of the Messenger of Allah to be lawful in it.

And the saying of the man of “la bulla shani’uka”, then that is the oath of the people of Jahiliyya.  So were the man to swear by it while he intends Allah, it is an oath.

And as to his saying “la-`amrillah” and “wa aymullah”, then it is only by Allah.  And their saying “ya hanah” and “yah amah”, then that is seeking the name.

Translator’s note: see chapter six for a discussion of some of these expressions.


448 - وسئل: رجل جعل على نفسه المشي إلى الكعبة، أو صدقة، أو عتقا أو نذرا، أو هديا، إن عافى الله أباه أو أخاه أو ذا رحم، أو قطع قرابة أو أمر مأثم.

قال: كتاب الله قبل اليمين، لا يمين في معصية، إنما اليمين الواجبة التي ينبغي لصاحبها أن يقول  بها: ما جعل لله عليه من الشكر إن هو عافاه [من مرض]   أو من أمر يخافه أو رد غائب أو رد سفره أو رزقه الله. وهذا الواجب على صاحبه ينبغي له أن يفي له به .

فقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: ما كان عليه واجبا فحلف أن لا يفعله ففعله فليس عليه فيه شئ، وما لم يكن عليه واجبا فحلف أن لا يفعله ففعله فالكفارة .


448 – And he was asked: A man who placed it upon himself to walk to the Ka`ba, or a charity, or an emancipation, or a vow, or a gift, if Allah healed his father or his brother or a womb relation, or cutting off a relation or a sinful affair.

He said: The book of Allah is before the oath.  There is no oath in an act of disobedience.  The obligatory oath is only that which behooves its possessor to say with it: What has been placed upon him for Allah out of thanks if He healed him of sickness or from an affair which he fears or the return of one absent or the return of journey or Allah provided for him.  And this is what is obligatory upon its possessor which behooves him to fulfill it for Him.

So Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: Whatever is obligatory upon him, and he swore not to do it, then there is nothing upon him in it.  And whatever is not obligatory upon him, and he swore not to do it, and he did it, then the atonement (is upon him).


449 - وسئل: هل يصح إذا حلف الرجل أن يضرب عبده عددا أن يجمع خشبا فيضربه فيحسب بعدده؟

قال: نعم، إن عليا جلد الوليد بن عقبة في الخمر بسوط له رأسان فحسب كل جلدة بجلدتين .


449 – And he was asked: Is it correct that when the man has sworn to strike his slave a number of times, that he combines some timber and strikes him, and counts it by his number?

He said: Yes, `Ali lashed al-Walid b. `Uqba in (punishment for drinking) wine with a lash that had two heads.  So he counted every lashing as two lashings.


450 - قال: وسألته عليه السلام عن الرجل يقول علي مائة بدنة أو ألف بدنة أو مالا يطيق؟

فقال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: ذلك من خطوات الشيطان .


450 – He said: And I asked him عليه السلام about the man who says upon me be a hundred badana (sacrifice camels) or a thousand badana or what he is not capable of.

So he said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: That is from the footsteps of Shaytan.


451 - وسئل عليه السلام عن رجل جعل على نفسه عتق رقبة من ولد إسماعيل؟ 

قال: ومن عسى أن يكون [من] ولد إسماعيل إلا هؤلاء، وأشار بيده إلى أهله وولده .

قال: ولا يحلف اليهودي والنصراني إلا بالله، ولا يصلح لاحد أن يستحلفهم بآلهتهم .


451 – And he عليه السلام was asked about a man who put it upon himself to emancipate a neck from the children of Isma`il.

He said: And who may be from the children of Isma`il but these ones – and he pointed with his hand to his family and his children.

He said: And the Jew and the Christian is not administered an oath but by Allah, and it is not appropriate for anything to adjure them by their gods.


452 - وعنه عليه السلام، قال: كل ما خالف كتاب الله في شئ من الأشياء من يمين أو غيره رد إلى كتاب الله .


452 – And from him عليه السلام, he said: All that opposes the book of Allah in anything from the things of an oath or other than it is returned to the book of Allah.


453 - وسألته عليه السلام عن رجل جعل على نفسه أن يصوم إلى أن يقوم قائمكم؟

قال: شئ عليه أو جعله لله؟ قلت: بل جعله لله.

قال: كان عارفا أو غير عارف؟ قلت: بل عارف. قال:

إن كان عارفا أتم الصوم، ولا يصوم في السفر والمرض وأيام التشريق .


453 – And I asked him عليه السلام about a man who placed it upon himself to fast until your Qa’im rises.

He said: Something upon him or he placed it for Allah?  I said: Rather, he placed it for Allah.

He said: He is an `arif (i.e. a Shi`a) or not an `arif?  I said: Rather, an `arif.  

He said: If he is an `arif, he completes the fast, but he does not fast in travel and sickness and the days of Tashriq.


454 - وعنه عليه السلام، في رجل عاهد الله عند الحجر أن لا يقرب محرما أبدا، فلما رجع عاد إلى المحرم، فقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام:

يعتق أو يصوم أو يطعم ستين مسكينا، وما ترك من الامر أعظم، ويستغفر الله ويتوب  


454 – And from him عليه السلام regarding a man who made a covenant with Allah at the Hijr to never draw near one forbidden.  So when he returned, he went back to the one forbidden.  So Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: He emancipates (a slave) or fasts or feeds sixty poor people, and what he abandoned of the affair (or: command) is greater.  And he seeks forgiveness of Allah and repents.


455 - أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: كفارة اليمين إطعام عشرة مساكين لكل واحد فيه طحنة وحنطة أو ثوب .


455 – Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: The atonement of the oath is feeding ten poor people, for each one in it flour and wheat or a garment.


456 – وفي رواية الحلبي: مد وحفنة أو ثوبين.

وإن أعتق مستضعفا وقد وجب عليه العتق لم يكن به بأس .


456 – And in the narration of al-Halabi: a mudd and a fistful or two garments.

And if one emancipated a mustad`af (one who is weakened, i.e. those who are not Shi`a but who are not nasibi either, who do not know the differences of sects, and are ignorant of the truth but not inimical against it or its people), and emancipation had been obligated upon him, there is no harm with it.


" والحمد لله وصلى الله على نبيه محمد وآله وسلم تسليما كثيرا ".


And praise be to Allah, and may Allah send benedictions upon His Prophet and his family, and send abundant salutations of peace.