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al-Idah

اما بعد (الاختلاف والنظر) فانا نظرنا فيما اختلفت فيه الملة 1 من أهل القبلة حتى كفر بعضهم بعضا " وبرئ بعضهم من بعض وكلهم ينتحل الحق ويدعيه فوجدناهم في ذلك صنفين لا غير، فأحدهما المتسمون 2 بالجماعة المنتسبون إلى السنة وهم في ذلك مختلفون في أهوائهم وأحكامهم وآرائهم، وحلالهم وحرامهم، وبعضهم في ذلك راض ببعض يجيزون شهاداتهم ويصلون خلفهم ويقبلون 3 الاحاديث عنهم ويزكونهم غير أنهم قد أجمعوا على خلاف الصنف الآخر وهم الشيعة فلم يقبلوا شهاداتهم ولم يزكوهم ولم يصلوا خلفهم ولم يقبلوا الأحاديث عنهم.

 

Disagreement and examination

 

Verily we examined that in which the milla of the people of the Qibla have disagreed in, until some of them have declared kufr upon one another, and does absolution of one another, and all of them arrogate (to themselves) the truth and claim it, so we found them in this to be of two groups and not another.  So the first of them are those that are characterized by the Jama`a and affiliated to the Sunna, and they are in that disagreeing in their whims, their rules and their views, and their halal and their haram.  And some of them are in that pleased with one another, permitting their testimonies, praying behind them, accepting the hadiths from them, and giving them zakat, except that they are in joined in opposition to the other group, and they are the Shi`a.  So they do not accept they testimonies, do not give them zakat, do not pray behind them, and do not accept the hadiths from them.

 

 التمييز بين الصنفين فنظرنا فيما الصنف الأول عليه مقيمون وبه متمسكون وبه يدينون، الذى تسموا له بالجماعة وانتسبوا به إلى السنة فوجدناهم يقولون 4: ان الله تبارك وتعالى لم يبعث نبيه محمدا " - صلى الله عليه وآله - إلى خلقه بجميع ما يحتاجون إليه من أمر دينهم وحلالهم وحرامهم ودمائهم ومواريثهم وفروجهم ورقهم وسائر أحكامهم وأن رسول الله – صلعم – لم يكن يعرف ذلك أو عرفه فلم يبينه لهم [ وتركهم في عمى وشبهة 1 ] وأن الصحابة 2 من بعده وغيرهم من التابعين استنبطوا ذلك 3 برأيهم وأقاموا أحكاما " 4 سموها سنة أجروا الناس عليها منعوهم ان يجاوزوها إلى غيرها، وهم فيها مختلفون يحل بعضهم منها 5 ما يحرمه بعض ويحرم بعضهم ما يحله بعض [ فمن خالفهم فيها وعابها فهو 6 ] عندهم منسوب إلى البدعة والهوى خارج من الجماعة والسنة غير مرضى، ولا مقبول الشهادة ولا مزكى ولا يصلى خلفه، مدفوع عن كل خير ولا شئ عنده من الفضل، والراضي بها منسوب إلى السنة والجماعة، ومقبول الشهادة غير مدفوع عن شئ من الفضل فهم للرأى في الدين 7 مستعملون 8، فبه يحلون و يحرمون، وينكحون ويفرقون، ويقتلون ويستحيون، ويعتقون ويسترقون، و يعاقبون ويعفون ووجدناهم مع ما أجمعوا عليه من هذا القول مختلفين في عمود التوحيد.

 

The distinction between the two groups

 

We examined that upon which the first group are remaining upon, clinging to, and professing by, the one which is called the Jama`a and are affiliated to the Sunna, so we found that they say that Allah, tabaraka wa ta`ala, did not send His Prophet Muhammad – Allah bless him and his family – to His creation with all that they are in need of with regards to the affair of their religion, their halal and their haram, their blood, their inheritances, their women, their slaves, and the rest of their ahkaam, and that the Messenger of Allah (sawas) was not aware of that, or he was aware but did not explain it to them [and left them in blindness and doubt], and that the Sahaba after him, and other than them from the Tabi`un deduced (did istinbat) that by their opinion (ra’y) and established rules that they called sunna, compelling the people upon it, forbidding that they should go beyond it to other than it.  And they are in it in disagreement, some of them making halal from it what some have made haram, and some of them making haram what some have made halal.  [So whoso opposes them in it, and faults it then he is] according to them ascribed to bid`a and whim, outside of the jama`a and the sunna, not pleased with, not having acceptable testimony, not to give zakat to, and not to be prayed behind, pushed away from every good and with nothing of virtue with him.  And the one who is pleased with it is ascribed to the sunna and the jama`a, having acceptable testimony, not pushed away from anything of virtue.  So they utilize ra’y in religion, and by it make halal and make haram, marry and separate, kill and give life, emancipate and enslave, punish and pardon.  And we found them agreed upon this saying, in disagreement in the pillars of tawheed.

 

 أقاويل الجهمية فمنهم الجهمية الذين يقولون: ان الله لا في السماء ولا في الأرض ولا بينهما، ولا أين ولا حيث [ ولا حد 1 ] ولا طول ولا قصر ولا عرض ولا نهاية ويقولون: انه هواء، فهو عندهم داخل معهم في كل شئ لا كدخول الشئ في الشئ وخارج من 2 كل شئ لا كخروج الشئ من 3 الشئ فهو عندهم داخل فيهم وفى كل ذى روح 4 على معناهم الذى وصفوا وتوهموا فيجب عليهم عند أنفسهم كما يوجبون على الناس ان يعبدوا ما هو فيهم وما في كل ذى روح من الهواء. ولا يقرون بمنكر ولا نكير ولا بعذاب القبر ولا بميزان ولا صراط، ويقولون: إذا قمت تصلى فلا تتوهم شيئا، فان توهمت شيئا فقد كفرت، ويقولون في الجملة ليس كمثله شئ ثم يصفونه بصفة العدم وصفة لا شئ، ويقولون: لا يزول ولا يتحرك ولا يتكلم ولا يأمر ولا ينهى [ انما يخلق خلقا " يتكلم ويأمر وينهى 5 ] فهو جل ثناؤه عندهم بمنزلة الموات 6 ويزعمون أنهم يكفرون بالذى قال لموسى [: انى أنا ربك 7 فلا يعبدونه، ولا يعبدون الذى قال لموسى 8: ] انى أنا الله رب العالمين، [ والذى قال لموسى: اننى انا الله لا اله الا أنا فاعبدنى 9 ] ويكفرون بعبادة الذى كلم 10 موسى تكليما " 11 ويقولون: ليس هو فوق كل شئ ولا هو تحت كل شئ، ويقولون: بسطك يديك في الدعاء إلى السماء كبسطك اياهما إلى الارض.

 

Doctrines of the Jahmiyya

 

From them are the Jahmiyya, those that say that Allah is not in the heaven and not in the Earth and not between them.  There is no where,  no whither, no limit, no length, no shortness, no width and no end.  And they say that He is air, so He is according to them inside with them in every thing, not like the coming inside of a thing in a thing, and outside of every thing, not like the being existing of a thing from a thing.  So He is according to them inside of them, and every possessor of a soul upon their meaning that they describe and imagine.  So it is wajib upon them with themselves as they make it wajib upon the people that they worship that which is inside of them and in every possessor of a soul of the air.  And they do not affirm Munkar and Nakeer, and not the punishment of the grave, and not the Mizan, and not the Sirat.  And they say:  When you rise to salat, then do not imagine anything, for if you imagine something, then you have done kufr.  And they say in summary, There is no likeness unto Him, then they describe Him with the attribute of nonexistence and the attribute of nothing.  And they say:  He does not descend, does not move, does not speak, does not command and does not prohibit [He has only created a creation that speaks and commands and prohibits]  So He is, glorified be His praise, according to them of the status of the dead.  And they assert that they deny (do kufr) of the one who said to Musa [“I am your Lord” so they do not worship Him and they do not worship the one who said to Musa “Verily I am Allah, Lord of the worlds”  and the one who said to Musa “verily I am Allah, there is no god but Me, so worship Me”, and they deny the worship of the one who spoke to Musa speaking.  And they say:  He is not over every thing and He is not under every thing.  And they say:  Your stetching of your hands in du`a to Heaven is as your stretching of them to the Earth.

 

 

 أقاويل المعتزلة ومنهم المعتزلة الذين يقولون في التوحيد وعذاب القبر والميزان والصراط  مثل قول الجهيمة، ويقولون: ان الله لم يقض ولم يقدر علينا خيرا " ولا شرا " ولا قضاء ولا قدرا "، ويقولون: ان الجنة والنار لم تخلقا بعد، ويقولون: ان شئنا زاد الله في الخلق وان شئنا لم يزد لأن سبب النشأ والولد 1 الينا 2، ان 3 شئنا فعلنا وان لم نشأ لم نفعل، ويقولون: ان الله لم يخلق الشر [ وانه يكون مالا يشاء الله وان الله لا يشاء الشر 4 ] ولا يشاء 5 الا ما يحب فلزمهم 6 [ ان يقولوا 7: ] ان الله خلق الكلاب والخنازير وان الله يحبهما، أو يقولوا: ان الله لم يشأهما ولم يخلقهما فيكونون بذلك قد صدقوا المجوس في قولهم، تعالى الله عزوجل عما يقولون علوا " كبيرا ".

 

Doctrines of the Mu`tazila

 

And from them are the Mu`tazila, the ones who say regarding tawhid, the punishment of the grave, the mizan and the siraat like the doctrine of the Jahmiyya.  And they say  that Allah does not decree and does not determine upon us neither good nor evil, not decreeing and not determining.  And they say that the Garden and the Fire are not created after.   And they say that if we will, Allah increases us in creation, and if we do not will, He does not increase, for the cause of emergence and birth is to us.  If we have willed, we act, and if have not willed, we do not act.  And they say that Allah does not create evil [and that it is what Allah does not will, and that Allah does not will evil] and He does not will except what He loves, so they it compels them [to say] that Allah created the dogs and the pigs and that Allah loves them, or they say that Allah does not will them and does not create them, so by that they have approved of the Magians in their saying, Allah, `azza wa jalla, be exalted from they say with a great exaltation.

 

 أقاويل الجبرية ومنهم أهل الجبر 8 الذين يقولون: ان الله عزوجل كلفنا مالا نطيق وان لم نفعله 9 عذبنا، وانما نحن بمنزلة الحجارة [ المنقولة 10 ] ان حركت تحركت وان لم تحرك لم تتحرك، قالوا: وانما قولنا: فعل الرجل إذا زنى أو سرق أو قتل أو لاط، بمنزلة قولك، مات وعاش، وليس هو مات وعاش وانما اميت واعيش فهم 11 يحملون ذنوبهم على ربهم ويقولون: لم يكن الزانى يستطيع ان لا يزنى، وكذلك كل معصية، ويزعمون [ أن كل شئ بخلاف قولهم فهو كفر 1 ] بالله العظيم.

 

Doctines of the Jabriyya

 

And from them are the people of jabr, the ones who say that Allah, `azza wa jalla, has made us responsible for that which we are incapable of and that if we do not do it, He punishes us.  And that we are only of the status of the mobile stones, if you are moved you move and if you are not moved, you do not move.  They say:  And our saying is only that the action of the man when he fornicates, steals, kills, or sodomizes is of the status of our saying he died and he lived.  It is not him who died and died, he only was made to die and made to live.  So they charge their sins to upon their Lord, and say:  The fornicator is not capable of not fornicating, and likewise every sin.  And they assert [that ever thing that opposes their doctrine is kufr] of Allah the Mighty.

 

 

أقاويل أصحاب الحديث 2 [ ومنهم أصحاب الحديث 3 ] [ عامة أصحاب الحديث مثل سفيان الثوري و يزيد بن هارون وجرير بن عبد الله ووكيع بن الجراح 1 ] وأشباههم من العلماء الذين يروون أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - قال: لا تسبوا الدهر فان الله هو الدهر 1 [ فهم على معنى ما رووا ان الله هو الدهر 1 ] لا يعيبون 2 ان يقولوا: يا دهر 3 ارحمنا، ويا دهر 4 اغفر لنا ويا دهر 5 ارزقنا، يضاهون ما قالت اليهود: إنهم يعبدون الله الذى عزير ابنه، والنصارى الذين قالوا: نعبد الله الذى المسيح ابنه، ويروون أن الله خلق الملائكة من شعر ذراعيه وصدره 1، [ ويروون أن الله خلق نفسه من عرق الخيل 2 ] ويروون ان النار لما استعرت وضع الله قدمه فيها فقالت: قطى قطى 1 أي حسبى حسبى 2. ويروون في قول الله تعالى: فلما تجلى ربه للجبل جعله دكا " 1، أنه أطلع أنملة خنصره 2 ويروون عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - أنه قال: لا تسبوا الريح فانها من نفس الرحمن 3. ويروون أن رجلا " جلس معتمدا " على كفيه من خلفه فقال له بعض علمائهم: لا تجلس هذه الجلسة فانها جلسة رب العالمين 1 تعالى الله عما يقول الجاهلون علوا " كبيرا ".

 

Doctrines of the Ashab al-Hadith

 

And from them are the Ashab of the Hadith, the common Ashab of the Hadith like Sufyan ath-Thawri, Yazid b. Harun, Jarir b. `Abdullah, Waki` b. al-Jarrah, and their likes from the `ulama that narrate that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said:  Do not curse time for verily Allah, He is time.  So they are upon the meaning of what they narrate that Allah He is time.  They do not find fault that they say  “Oh time have mercy on us” and “Oh time forgive us” and “Oh time provide sustainance to us”.  They match what the Jews said:  that they worship Allah who is `Uzayr, His son.  And the Christians who said:  We worship Allah who is the Messiah, His son.  And they narrate that Allah created the angels from the hair of his arms and his chest.  [And they narrate that Allah created His self from the sweat of the horse.]  And they narrate that the Fire, when it is inflamed Allah will place His foot in it and it will say:  qatti, qatti, that is, enough for me, enough for me.  And they narrate regarding the saying of Allah Ta`ala “So when His Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it demolished” that He aquainted (it with) the fingertip of His little finger.  And they narrated that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – that he said: Do not curse the wind for it is from the breath of the Rahman.  And they narrate that regarding a man who sits on purpose on his palms from behind him, then some of their `ulama say:  Do not sit with this sitting, for it is the sitting of the Lord of the worlds.  Allah be exalted from what the ignorant say with a great exaltation.

 

 [ و 2 رووا أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - قال: رأيت رب العالمين في قبة حمراء ورأيته مرجلا " 3، رواه عكرمة عن ابن عباس. ورووا أن الله عزوجل: يجيئ عشية عرفة على جمل أحمر عليه رداء هش 1، رواه أبو صالح عن أبى هريرة ثم قال أبو صالح: وافضيحتاه.  ورووا أن الله عزوجل فوق العرش له أطيط كأطيط الرحل بالراكب 1، رواه أبو هريرة عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - ورووا عنه عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - أنه قال: رأيت ربى في روضة خضراء فرأيته جعدا " قططا 1، ورووا عن أم الطفيل امرأة أبى بن كعب عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - أنه قال: رأيت ربى 1 وفى رجليه نعلان من ذهب،

 

And they narrate that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said: I saw the Lord of the worlds in a red dome and I saw Him marjalan (?), `Akrama narrated it from Ibn `Abbas.  And they narrated that Allah, `azza wa jalla comes in the night of `Arafa upon a red camel, upon Him (or it) is a fragile robe, Abu Salih narrated it from Abu Hurayra from the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – then Abu Salih said:  afdehatahu (?).  And they narrated that Allah, `azza wa jalla, is above the throne, that it (or He) has a braying like the braying of the setting out of a rider, Abu Hurayra narrated it from the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family.  And they narrated from him from the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – that he said:  I saw my Lord and on his feet were sandals of gold.  

 

 ورووا عن عبد الله بن مسعود أنه قال: إذا كان يوم القيامة نادى مناد من العرش: لتلحق كل امة ما كانت تعبد، فيقوم من كان يعبد شيئا " من دون الله إلى ذلك الشئ حتى أهل الأوثان إلى أوثانهم وأهل الأصنام إلى أصنامهم، وتبقى الملائكة والنبيون والشهداء والصالحون، فيناديهم: ماذا تنتظرون ؟ - فتقول الانبياء: ننتظر ربنا عزوجل، فيتجلى لهم الرب فيقول: أنا ربكم، فيهمون أن يبطشوا به وهو أعز وأجل من ذلك، فيقولون: ان بيننا وبينه علامة فيكشف لهم عن ساق ويدعون إلى السجود فلا يستطيعون * خاشعة أبصارهم.  وانما تأولوا ذلك لجهلهم وقلة معرفتهم باللغة التى خاطب الله بها خلقه وانما معنى الحديث عندنا: فتلحق كل امة ما كانت تعبد فتبقى هذه الامة فيقال لهم: ما كان محمد وامته يعبدون ؟ - فيقولون: كان محمد وامته يعبدون الله وحده لا شريك له فيتجلى لهم الرب عزوجل فيقول: انا ربكم، فتهيأوا ان يبطشوا 1 به، فيقولون: بيننا وبينه علامة، فيقول: ما هي ؟ - فيقولون: يوم يكشف عن ساق، فيتجلى لهم بالنورانية فيعرفون فيخرون سجدا "، ومعنى قوله: يكشف عن ساق أي عن شدة، فهذا هو الوجه ليس ما تأولوه.

 

And they narrated from `Abdullah b. Mas`ud that he said:  When it is the Day of Qiyama, a caller will call from the throne:  Every umma is to follow that which they used to worship.  So whoso used to worship other than Allah will be go to that thing even the people of idols to their idols, and the people of images to their images, and the angels, the prophets, the martyrs and the righteous will remain, so they will be called to:  What are you waiting for?  So the prophets will say:  We are waiting for our Lord, `azza wa jalla.  So the Lord will appear to them.  So he says:  I am your Lord.  So they are worried to strike Him (?), and He is more exalted and glorious than that.  So they say:  Between us and Him is a sign, so for them a leg will be bared, and they will be commanded to prostrate but they will not be able to,  their eyes downcast.  And they have only interpreted that due to their ingnorance and paucity of understanding the language that Allah spoke to His create.  And the meaning of the hadith according to us is only that every umma will follow what they worship, and this umma will remain.  So it will be said to them:  What did Muhammad and his umma worship?  So they will say:  Muhammad and his umma would worship Allah alone, no partner to Him.  So their Lord, `azza wa jalla,  will appear to them.  So he will say:  I am your Lord.  So they will be prepared to strike Him (?).  So they will say:  Between us and between Him is a sign.  So He will say:  What is it?  So they will say:  A day that a leg will be bared.  So He appear to them by luminosity, so they will know and fall down prostrate.  And the meaning of His saying “a leg will be bared”, that is, from strength.  So this is the meaning, not what they have interpreted.

 

 ورووا أن كعب الاحبار رأى جرير بن عبد الله البجلى واضعا " احدى رجليه على الاخرى فقال: ضعها فانها لا تصلح للبشر، ان الله تبارك وتعالى هكذا يجلس 1. ورووا أن الملائكة تحمل ربها وأنها تعرف غضبه من رضاه وتعرف غضبه بثقله على كواهلها 2. ورووا عن أبى الدرداء أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - قال: أتانى ربى الليلة فوضع يده بين كتفي حتى وجدت برد أنامله على صدري وقال: يا محمد قلت: لبيك قال: فيم [ يختصم ] الملا الاعلى ؟ - فقلت: في الدرجات والكفارات [ إلى ان قال ] أما الدرجات فافشاء السلام اطعام الطعام، وأما الكفارات فالوضوء في السبرات 3 ونقل الاقدام إلى الجماعات.  ورووا أن آدم كلم موسى في القدر فحجه 1، وأن أبا بكر كلم عمر [ في القدر ] فحجه 2، وأن جبرئيل كلم ميكائيل في القدر فحجه 3.  ورووا أن موسى بن عمران لطم ملك الموت فأعوره.  وكل هذه الروايات زور وكذب على الله ورسوله.

 

And they narrated that Ka`b al-Ahbar say Jarir b. `Abdullah al-Bajli putting one of his legs upon the other, so he said: Put it down for it not fitting for the human being, verily Allah, tabaraka wa ta`ala, sits like this.  And they narrated that the angels bear their Lord, and that they know His anger from His contentment, and they know His anger by His heaviness upon their upper backs.  And they narrate from Abi ‘d-Darda that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said:  My Lord came to me tonight, so He placed His hand between my should until I found the cold of His fingertips upon my chest.  And He said:  Oh Muhammad.  I said:  At your service.  He said:  In what do the most high chiefs dispute?  So I said:  In the degrees and the atonements [until he said] As to the degrees, so it is the disclosure of peace, the feeding of food.  As to the atonement, then it is the wudu in (severe) colds.  And it has been narrated, the feet to the jama`at.  And they narrated that Adam spoke to Musa about al-qadr so he confuted  him, and that Abu Bakr spoke to `Umar [about al-qadr] so he confuted him, and that Jibra’il spoke to Mika’il in al-qadr so he did confuted him.  And they narrated that Musa b. `Imram slapped the angel of death making him one-eyed.  And all of these narrations are a forgery and a lie upon Allah and His Messenger.

 

ورووا أن ابراهيم الخليل عليه السلام كذب ثلاث كذبات 1.  ورووا أن يوسف الصديق حل تكته وقعد من امرأة العزيز مقعد الخائن 1.  ورووا أن داود عليه السلام قدم اوريا بن حنان امام التابوت ليقتل فيتزوج امرأته 1.  ورووا أن الشيطان قعد في مجلس سليمان بن داود وكان يأتي نساءه وهن حيض 1.  وهذا كله رد على الله عزوجل لان الله لا يسلط الشياطين على نساء النبيين حتى ينكحوهن تبارك الله عما تقول الحشوية وتعالى علوا " كبيرا ".

 

And they narrated that Ibrahim al-Khalil (as) lied three lies.  And they narrated that Yusuf as-Sadiq untied his waistband and abstained from the wife of al-`Aziz a treacherous seat (?).  And they narrated that Dawud (as) advanced Urmiya b. Hannan before the Ark so that he be killed, then he would marry his wife.  And they narrated that Shaytan sat in the majlis of Sulayman b. Dawud, and would approach his women while they were menstruating.  And all of that is a rejection upon Allah, `azza wa jalla, for Allah does not give the Shaytans power over the women of the prophets up them having sexual intercourse with them.  Praised be Allah from what the Hashawiyya say, and exalted  with a great exaltation.   

 

 ورووا أن آدم وحواء كفرا بالله تعالى وأشركا، وتأولوا قول الله عزوجل: هو الذى خلقكم من نفس واحدة وجعل منها زوجها ليسكن إليها فلما تغشيها حملت حملا " خفيفا " فمرت به فلما أثقلت دعوا الله ربهما لئن آتيتنا صالحا " لنكونن من الشاكرين * فلما آتاهما صالحا " جعلا له شركاء فيما آتاهما فتعالى الله عما يشركون 1 على خلاف تأويله.  

 

And they narrated that Adam and Hawa died kufr of Allah Ta`ala, and commited shirk.  And they interpret the saying of Allah, `azza wa jalla “It is He who created you out of one self, and made of him his spouse that he might rest in her. Then, when he covered her, she bore a light burden and passed by with it; but when it became heavy they cried to Allah their Lord, 'If Thou givest us a righteous son, we indeed shall be of the thankful.'  Thereafter, when He gave them a righteous son, they assigned Him associates in that He had given them; but Allah is high exalted above that they associate.”  In opposition to their ta’wil.  

 

ورووا أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - حلل أشياء بعينها بغير ناسخ ومنسوخ، وكذلك أصحابه، أحدهم يحل فرجا " والآخر يحرمه، فإذا قلنا: ويحكم هذا تناقض واختلاف ! قالوا: قال النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - اختلاف أصحابي رحمة، ولو كان المعنى على ما تأولوه لكان اتفاقهم عذابا ". وهذا الحديث عندنا صحيح 1 وانما معناه أنه (صلعم) قال: اختلاف أمتى رحمة ما كنت فيهم وبين أظهرهم لانهم إذا اختلفوا بحضرته ردهم إلى الحق فاجتمعوا عليه ولو كان المعنى ما تأولوه 1 الجهال لما ذم الله تعالى من اختلف بقوله: ولكن اختلفوا فمنهم من آمن ومنهم من كفر 2 وقال تعالى: ولا تكونوا كالذين تفرقوا واختلفوا من بعد ما جاءهم البينات واولئك لهم عذاب عظيم 3

 

And they narrated that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – made halal things in themselves with a nasikh and a mansukh, and likewise his companions.  One of them makes halal a woman, the other makes it haram.  So when we said:  Woe unto you, this contradiction and ikhtilaf!  They said:  The Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said:  The ikhtilaf of my companions is a mercy.  And if the meaning what was they interpreted of it, then their agreement would be a punishment.  And this hadith is sahih according to us, and its meaning is only that he (sawas) said:  The ikhtilaf of my umma is a mercy so long as I am amongst them and in their midst, for when they differed with his presence he would return them to the truth and they would join together upon it.  And if the meaning was what the ignorant interpreted then Allah Ta`ala would not have defamed the one who did ikhtilaf with His saying “but they fell into variance, and some of them believed, and some disbelieved”  And Allah Ta`ala said “Be not as those who scattered and fell into variance after the clear signs came to them; those there awaits a mighty chastisement,”

 

ثم رووا أن الزهرة مسخت وأنها كانت امرأة فزنت، وأن سهيلا " كان عشارا " باليمن فمسخ كوكبا " 4 . ففى بعض الامثال التى يضربها اولو العقول [ أن ] سهيلا " إذا طلع بالعراق وقابل الزهرة ضحكت إليه فقالت: ألست الذى كنت 1 عشارا " وسخ الثياب سهك 2 الرائحة منتن الابطين دبر الجسد فمسخت كوكبا مرتفعا منيرا " مشرقا " مضيئا " يهتدى بك في الظلمات البر والبحر ؟ ! فيقول: هكذا تقول الحشوية [ و ] أصحاب الحديث.

 

Then they narrated that Venus had undergone maskh (metamorphoses) and that it had had been a women who fornicated, and that Canopus had been a tithe-collector from Yemen who was undergone maskh into a star.  So in some of the examples that they set forth, people of intellect, is that Canopus when it rises in Iraq and meets Venus she laughes at him and says “Where you not the one that was a tithe collector with filthy clothes, stinking smell, foetid armpits, backended body (?), so you have transformed into a star high,  illuminative, bright, light-giving (?).  By you is (someone) guided in the shadows, land and sea?  So he says: (missing content here?)  Thus says the Hashwiyya, the Ashab al-Hadith.  

 

 أما فمما تفهم البهائم فضلا " عن الناس أن الذى يمسخ يصير إلى أسوء الحالات وأنكرها كما مسخت طائفة من بنى اسرائيل فصاروا قردة وخنازير بعد أن كان لهم هيئة وجمال وانما يمسخ الشئ للعذاب، والمسخ صحيح في كتاب الله وآثار رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وآله - لا اختلاف بين الامة فيه على أنه يذاق العذاب، فالعذاب عند أصحاب الحديث على حسب ما رووه أن الخسيس الوضيع يصير [ به ] مضيئا " مشرقا " مرتفعا " باقيا " ما بقى الليل والنهار وهذا أبين ما يكون من المحال. فيقول لها: أنت ما قصتك ؟ قالت: انا عندهم سراج لا شك عندهم أنى زنيت فصرت أحد الكواكب السبعة المضيئة المنيرة التى هي طوالع العالم التى أقسم الله بها فقال: فلا أقسم بالخنس الجوار الكنس وهى الكواكب [ و ] الزهرة احداهن تخنس بالنهار وتظهر بالليل فلو أصاب الزانى في هذه الدنيا ما أصابني لم تبق حصان 1 الا زنت، فيضحك إليها سهيل ويقول: أليس من العجب ان يسلم أهل هذه المقالة من السلطان 2 اما ان يعرض عليهم التوبة أو يصنع 3 فيهم [ ما يشاء ]. 

 

However, what the beasts understand, let alone mankind, is that the one who undergoes maskh ends up in the most wretched of states and  its most loathsome, as had a group of the Banu Israel undergone maskh so they became apes and pigs after they had had form and beauty.  A thing only undergoes maskh as a punishment.  Maskh is sound in the book of Allah and the traditions of the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless him and his family – there is no ikhtilaf in the Umma regarding it so far as it is a punishment.  So punishment according to the Ashab al-Hadith in accordance with what they narrate of it is that the despicable rascal become by it light-giving (?), bright, high, remaining so long as the night and day remain, and this is the most evident of absurdities.  So it is said to it:  You, what is your story?  So it says:  I am according to them a lamp, no doubt according to them that I fornicated, so I became one of the heavenly bodies and Venus is one of them, withdrawing (?) by day, appearing at night, so if the fornicator should have happen to them in this dunya what happened to me, then there would not remain a horse (or, chaste woman?) but that it fornicate.  So Canopus laughs at it.  And he says:  Is it not a wonder that the the people of this discourse  (remainder unclear) either they be offered tawba of do amongst them as ones wishes. 

 

ورووا أن الفأرة يهودية وفى بعض الامثال أن فأرة قالت لصاحبتها: يزعمون أننا يهود، قالت لها صاحبتها: بيننا وبينهم السبت وأكل الجرى ولحم الجمل وذبائح - المسلمين، قالت لها صاحبتها: هذه حجة بينة يقطع بها العذر.

 

And they narrated that the rat is Jewish, and in some of the parables that the rat said to its companion:  They assert that I am a Jew.  Its companion said to it:  Between us and them is the Sabbath, and eating catfish, and the meat of the camel, and the slaughtering of the Muslims.  So its companion said to it:   This is a clear proof that cuts off excuse.

 

 وهذه الروايات وأمثالها التى رووها ولا تحصى كثرة كذب وزور وبهتان الا انا اقتصرنا على ما ذكرنا لتعرف أن أصولهم واهية وغاية أحاديثهم متقاربة والله جل اسمه نسأل التوفيق كما يحب ويرضى انه ولى ذلك بمنه ولطفه 4 ]

 

These narrations and their like that they narrated are innumerable (in) plentitude of lying and forgery and falsehood, however we have limited ourselves to what we have mentioned so that you may know that their principles are weak, and the aim of their hadiths are close.  And (from) Allah, may His name be glorified, we ask for tawfiq and He loves and pleases.  Verily He is the master of that by His beningness and His grace.

 

. أقاويل المرجئة ومنهم المرجئة الذين 5 يروى 6 منهم 7 أعلامهم مثل ابراهيم النخعي [ وابراهيم بن يزيد التيمى 1 ومن دونهما مثل سفيان الثوري وابن المبارك 2 ] ووكيع وهشام 3 وعلى بن عاصم 4 [ عن رجالهم 5 ] أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وآله – قال: صنفان من أمتى ليس لهما في الاسلام نصيب 6، القدرية والمرجئة 7. فقيل لهم: ما 8 المرجئة ؟ - قالوا: الذين يقولون: الايمان قول بلا عمل وأصل 9 ما هم عليه أنهم يدينون بأن أحدهم لو 10 ذبح 11 أباه وأمه وابنه وبنته 12 وأخاه واخته و 13 أحرقهم بالنار أو زنى أو سرق أو قتل النفس التى حرم الله 1 أو أحرق 2 المصاحف أو هدم الكعبة أو نبش القبور أو أتى أي 3 كبيرة نهى الله عنها ان ذلك لا يفسد عليه ايمانه ولا يخرجه منه، وأنه إذا أقر بلسانه [ بالشهادتين انه مستكمل الايمان، ايمانه كايمان جبرئيل وميكائيل – صلى الله عليهما – فعل ما فعل وارتكب ما ارتكب ما نهى الله عنه 4 ] ويحتجون بأن النبي – صلى الله عليه وآله – قال: أمرنا ان نقاتل الناس حتى يقولوا: لا اله الا الله، وهذا قبل ان يفرض [ سائر 5 ] الفرائض وهو منسوخ 6 ]. وقد روى محمد بن 7 الفضل [ عن أبيه 8 ] عن المغيرة بن سعيد 9 [ عن أبيه 10 ]  [ عن مقسم 1 ] عن سعيد بن جبير قال: المرجئة يهدو هذه الامة. [ وقد نسخ احتجاجهم قول النبي – صلى الله عليه وآله – حين قال: بنى الاسلام على خمس، شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله، واقام الصلوة، وايتاء الذكوة، وحج البيت، وصوم شهر رمضان 2 ].

 

Doctrines of the Murji’a

 

And from them are the Murji’a, about whom they narrate from their scholars, such as Ibrahim an-Nakh`I [and Ibrarhim b. Yazid at-Tamimi, and from other than those two like Sufyan ath-Thawri, Ibn al-Mubarak,] Waki`, Hisham, and `Ali b. `Asim [from their men] that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said:  Two groups from my Umma who neither will not have any share of Islam, the Qadariyya and the Murji’a.  So it was said to them:  Who are the Murji’a?  They said:  The ones who say that iman is a saying with no action.  And the foundation of what they are upon is that they profess that should one of them slaughter his father, his mother, his son, his daughter, his brother, his sister and burn them by fire, or fornicate, or steal, or kill the self that Allah has forbidden, or burn the mashafs (of the Quran), or destroy the Ka`ba, or exhume the graves, or come to whatever great sin that Allah prohibited, that that does not ruin his iman nor remove him from it.  And that if he confirms by his tongue [the two shahadas, that he is of perfect iman, and that his iman is as the iman of Jibra’il and Mika’il – Allah bless them both – having done what he did, having perpetrated what he perpetrated (of) what Allah has prohibited.]  And they allege as an argument that the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – said:  Our affair (or command) is that we fight the people until they say “la ilaaha illAllah”, and that is prior to the [remaining] obligations being imposed and it is mansukh (abrogated).]  And Muhammad b. al-Fadl narrated [from his father] from al-Mughira b. Sa`id [from his father] [from Muqassim] from Sa`id b. Jubayr.  He said:  The Murji’a destroy this Umma.  [And their argument has been abrogated by the saying of the Prophet – Allah bless him and his family – when he said:  Islam is built upon five:  shahada that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing salat, giving zakat, hajj of the House, and fasting the month of Ramadan.]

 

أقاويل الخوارج 1 ومنهم الخوارج الذين يكفرون هؤلاء أجمعين ويستحلون دماءهم وأموالهم وسبى نسائهم وذراريهم، ومنهم من يستحل قتل النساء والولدان، ويقولون: منزلتهم منزلة 2 النطف في أصلاب المشركين، ويقولون: لا حكم الا لله، وهم يعملون 3 الرأى في جميع ما هم فيه [ وعليه 4 ] فبالرأي يقتلون [ ويستحيون 5 ]، ويحلون ويحرمون وهم مع ذلك أصناف، يقتل بعضهم بعضا ويبرأ 6 بعضهم من بعض، [ ويترحمون على الشيخين ويتبرأون من على وعثمان 7 ويظهرون اللعن عليهما، ويقولون: قتل على بن أبى طالب المشركين والمسلمين جميعا " وقد وصفهم النبي - صلى الله عليه وآله - فقال 8 ؟: سيخرج منكم قوم يقرؤون القرآن لا يجاوز تراقيهم يمرقون من الاسلام كما يمرق السهم من الرمية فأينما ثقفتموهم فاقتلوهم فانهم مشركون. فقاتلهم على - عليه السلام - يوم النهروان فقتل منهم جماعة وقتل ذا الثدية رئيسهم - عليه لعنة الله - 1 ].

 

Doctrines of the Khawarij

 

And from them are the Khawarij, those who pronounce kufr on all of them, make lawful their blood and property, and take captive their women and offspring.  And from them are (those) who make lawuful the killing of women and children, saying:  Their status is the status of sperm in the loins of the mushrikeen.  And they say:  There is no rule except for Allah.  And they act on ra’y in all that they are in [and upon it] by ra’y they kill [and let live], and they make halal and haram.  And they are with that in groups, some of them kill one another, and some of them do bara’at of one another.  [And they ask (for Allah’s) mercy to be upon the two Shaykhs and they do bara’at from `Ali and `Uthman and make a display of cursing upon them.  And they say:  `Ali b. Abi Talib killed both the mushrikeen and the muslimeen.