Chapter 11

باب المياه

Waters


الماء كله طاهر حتى يعلم  أنه قذر .


All water is tahir until it is known to be impure.


ولا يفسد  الماء إلا ما  كانت له نفس سائلة .


Nothing pollutes water except that which has coursing blood.


ولا بأس أن  يتوضأ بماء الورد للصلاة ، ويغتسل به من الجنابة ، فأما  الذي تسخنه الشمس فإنه  لا يتوضأ به ، ولا يغتسل به  ولا يعجن به ، لأنه يورث البرص .


There is no harm with performing wudu for salat with rose-water, and one does the ghusl of janaba with it.  However, that which the sun heats is not allowed to be used for wudu, nor may one perform the ghusl with it, nor may one kneed (dough) with it, for it brings about al-baras (“white leprosy”, vitiligo/leucoderma)


وأما  الماء الآجن ، والذي قد ولغ فيه الكلب، والسنور فإنه لا بأس بأن يتوضأ منه ويغتسل، إلا أن يوجد غيره فيتنزه  عنه .


As to fetid (or, brackish) water, and that wherein dogs have lapped, and cats, there is no problem with performing wudu or ghusl with it, unless one is able to find other water in which case one stays away from it.


ولا بأس بالوضوء من فضل الحائض والجنب .


There is no harm with performing wudu from the leftover of the menstruating woman and the junub.


وكل ما يؤكل لحمه فلا بأس بالوضوء مما شرب منه .


With all (animals) whose meat is eaten there is no harm with performing wudu from what they have drunken of.


وقال رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): كل شئ يجتر فسؤره حلال ، ولعابه حلال .


The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said, “Everything that ruminates, then it its su’r (its remainder, e.g. the leftover of water from which it has drunk) is allowed, and its saliva is allowed.”


وإن أهل البادية  سألوا رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمفقالوا: (يا رسول الله، أن حياضنا هذه تردها السباع والكلاب والبهائم؟ فقال (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلملهملها ما أخذت بأفواهها ، ولكم سائر ذلك .


The Bedouins asked the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله “O Messenger of Allah, predatory animals, dogs, and livestock come to our ponds here.”  So he صلى الله عليه وآله said to them, “For them is what they have taken with their mouths, and for you is the rest of that.”


ولا يجوز الوضوء بسؤر اليهودي، والنصراني، وولد الزنا ، والمشرك، وكل من  خالف الإسلام .


It not permissible to perform wudu with the su’r of the Jew, the Christian, the child of fornication, the mushrik, and anyone who opposes Islam. (translator’s note: the implication of the su’r of the walad az-zina (illegitimate child) being najis like the others is against the more famous view of the ta’ifa)


وإذا كان الماء كرا لم ينجسه شئ .


If the water is of a kurr quantity, then nothing renders it najis.


والكر ثلاثة أشبار طول ، (في عرض ثلاثة أشبار، في عمق ثلاثة أشبار)  .


(The measure of) the kurr is three hand-spans long, three hand-span wide, and three hand-spans deep.


وماء البئر  واسع لا يفسده شئ .


Well-water is vast, nothing pollutes it.


وماء الحمام سبيله سبيل الماء الجاري إذا كانت له مادة .


The course of the water of the hammam is the course of running water, if it has a continuous increase.


وأكبر  ما يقع في البئر الإنسان فيموت فيها، ينزح منها سبعون دلوا، وأصغر  ما يقع فيها الصعوة  ينزح منها  دلو واحد، وفيما بين الإنسان والصعوة على قدر ما يقع فيها .


The greatest thing that may fall in a well is a human being that dies in it.  One will then drain seventy bucketfuls of water from it.  And the least thing that may fall in a well is the small sparrow.  One drains a single bucketful from it.  And what is between a human being and a small sparrow is in proportion to what fell in it (i.e. and died).


وإن وقع فيها ثور أو بعير، أو صب فيها خمر نزح  الماء كله .


If a bull or a camel fell in it, or wine was poured into it, then all of the water would be drained.


وإن وقع فيها حمار نزح منها كر من ماء .


If a donkey fell in it, then a kurr of water would be drained.


وإن وقع فيها كلب أو سنور نزح  منها ثلاثون دلوا إلى أربعين دلوا .


If a dog or a cat fell in it, then between thirty and forty bucketfuls would be drained.


وإن وقعت فيها دجاجة أو حمامة  نزح منها سبع دلاء .


If a chicken or a pigeon fell in it, then seven bucketful would be drained.


وإن وقعت فيها  فأرة نزح  منها دلو واحد، وإن تفسخت فسبع دلاء .


If a rat fell in it, then one bucketful would be drained.  And if it had rotted, then seven bucketfuls (would be drained).


وإن بال فيها رجل نزح منها أربعون دلوا، وإن بال فيها صبي قد أكل الطعام نزح منها ثلاث دلاء ، فإن كان رضيعا نزح منها دلو واحد .


If a man urinated in it, then forty bucketfuls would be drained.  If an infant who has already begun eating food urinated in it, then three bucketfuls would be drained.  And if it was a nursing infant, then one bucketful would be drained.


وإن وقعت فيها  عذرة استقي منها عشر  دلاء، وإن ذابت فيها فأربعون دلوا إلى خمسين دلوا .


If human feces fell in it, then ten bucketfuls would be drawn out.  If it had dissolved in it, then between forty and fifty buckets-full.


والثوب إذا أصابه البول غسل بماء جار مرة، وإن غسل بماء راكد فمرتين، ثم يعصر .


If urine comes in contact with clothing, then it is washed with running water once.  If it is washed with still water (it is done) two times, and then it is wrung out.


وبول الغلام الرضيع يصب عليه الماء صبا، وإن كان أكل الطعام غسل، والغلام والجارية في هذا سواء .


As to the urine of a nursing infant, water is poured over it.  If the child has already eaten food, then it will be washed.  Boys and girls are the same with regards to this.


وقد روي (عن أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلامأنه)  قاللبن الجارية وبولها يغسل منه الثوب قبل أن تطعم، لأن لبنها يخرج من مثانة أمها، ولبن الغلام لا يغسل منه الثوب قبل أن يطعم وبوله ، لأن لبن الغلام يخرج من المنكبين والعضدين .


And it has been related from Amir al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام that he said, “Clothes are to be washed on account of the milk and urine of a girl before she eats food, for her milk comes from her mother’s bladder.  The milk and urine of a boy is not washed before he eats solid food, for the boy’s milk comes from the shoulders and the upper arms.” (translator’s note: the isnad of this hadith is considered da`if)


وأما الدم، إذا أصاب الثوب فلا بأس بالصلاة فيه، ما لم يكن مقداره مقدار درهم واف، والوافي : ما يكون وزنه درهما وثلثا، وما كان دون الدرهم الوافي فلا  يجب غسله، ولا بأس بالصلاة فيه .


As to blood, if it comes in contact with clothing, then there is no harm with offering salat in it, as long as it is not of the measure of a waf dirham.  The wafi is that whose weight is one dirham and a third.  It is not necessary to wash what is less than a waf dirham, and there is no harm with offering salat in it.


ودم الحيض إذا أصاب الثوب فلا يجوز الصلاة فيه، قليلا كان أو كثيرا .


If the blood of menstruation comes in contact with clothing, then it not permissible to offer salat in it, whether it is little or much.


ولا بأس بدم السمك في الثوب (أن يصلى)  فيه، قليلا كان أو كثيرا .


There is no objection to praying in clothing with the blood of fish on it, whether it is little or much.


وكل ما لا تتم الصلاة فيه وحده فلا بأس بالصلاة فيه إذا أصابه قذر، مثل: العمامة ، والقلنسوة، والتكة، والجورب، والخف .


For all those things that one may not complete salat in by themselves, there is no problem if an impurity should be found on them, such as: the turban, the cap, the waistband, the sock, and the khuff.