Chapter 12

باب الوضوء

Wudu


السنة في دخول الخلاء أن يدخل الرجل رجله اليسرى قبل اليمنى ،  ويغطي رأسه ، ويذكر الله عز وجل .


The Sunna in regards to entering the washroom is that the man enters with his left foot before his right, covers his head, and remembers Allah عز وجل.


ولا يجوز التغوط على شطوط  الأنهار والطرق النافذة، وأبواب الدور، وفئ النزال، وتحت الأشجار المثمرة .


It is not permissible to defecate on the banks of rivers, common pathways, the gateways of habitations, in the shade of resting places, and under fruit-bearing trees.  


ولا يجوز البول (في جحور الهوام)  ، ولا في  الماء الراكد  .


It is not permissible to urinate in burrows of insects or in still water.


ولا بأس بالبول في ماء جار .


There is no harm with urinating in flowing water.


ولا يجوز أن يطمح الرجل ببوله  في الهواء .


It is not permissible for a man cast his urine into the air.


ولا يجوز أن يجلس للبول والغائط مستقبل القبلة ولا مستدبرها، (ولا مستقبل الريح ولا  مستدبرها)  ، ولا مستقبل الهلال ولا مستدبره .


It is not permitted to sit for urination or defecation while facing the qibla, or having one’s back turned toward it, (nor facing the wind, or having one’s back turned toward it), nor facing the crescent moon (al-hilal), or having one’s back turned towards it.


ويكره الكلام والسواك للرجل وهو على الخلاء .


It is disliked for a man to speak or use a siwak while he is upon the toilet. 


وروي أن من تكلم على الخلاء لم تقض حاجته .


It is narrated that one who speaks while using the toilet shall not have his need fulfilled.  


والسواك على الخلاء يورث البخر  .


Using the siwak while using the toilet brings about bad breathe.  


وطول الجلوس على الخلاء يورث البواسير .


Prolonging one’s sitting upon the toilet brings about hemorrhoids.


وعلى الرجل إذا فرغ من حاجته أن يقولالحمد لله الذي أماط عني الأذى، وهنأني الطعام ، وعافاني من البلوى .


When he has finished from his need, it is upon the man to say, “Praise be to Allah who has kept me from harm, who has delighted me with food, and has freed me from affliction.” 


فإذا أراد الاستنجاء مسح بإصبعه من عند المقعدة إلى الأنثيين ثلاث مرات، (ثم من الأنثيين إلى رأس الذكر ثلاثا، (ثم ينتر  ذكره ثلاث مرات.


When he intends to perform istinja, he presses with his finger from the part between the anus and the testicles three times, (then from the testicles up to the head of the penis three times), (and then he jerks his penis three times).


فإذا صب الماء على يده للاستنجاء فليقلالحمد لله الذي جعل الماء طهورا ولم يجعله نجسا ، ويبدأ بذكره ويصب عليه  من الماء مثلي  ما (عليه من)  البول  يصبه مرتين ، هذا أدنى ما يجزي ، ثم يستنجي من الغائط، ويغسل حتى ينقى ما ثم  .


When he has poured water on his hand for instinja, he should then say, “Praise be to Allah who has made water pure and has not made it impure.”  He begins with his penis, pouring water over the like (two likes?) of where the urine is, pouring twice.  This is the least of what suffices.  Then he cleanses himself from stool until he has purified what there is over there.


ولا بأس بذكر الله على الخلاء، لأن ذكر الله حسن على كل حال، ومن سمع الأذان وهو على الخلاء فليقل كما يقول المؤذن .


There is no harm with the remembrance of Allah (while) upon the toilet, for the remembrance of Allah is good is in every state.  One who hears the adhan while upon the toilet should say what the mu’adhdhin says.


ولا يجوز للرجل  أن يستنجي بيمينه، إلا إذا كانت بيساره علة .


It is not permissible for a man to perform istinja with his right hand, unless there is an ailment with his left hand.


ولا يجوز أن يبول قائما من غير علة، لأنه من الجفاء .


It is not permissible to urinate while standing, without reason, for it is from coarseness.


ويكره للرجل أن يدخل الخلاء ومعه مصحف فيه القرآن أو (درهم عليه اسم الله، إلا أن يكون في صرة .


It is disliked for the man to enter the washroom and have a mus’haf in which is the Quran, or a dirham with the name of Allah on it, except if it is in a bag (package, purse).


ولا يجوز له أن يدخل الخلاء ومعه خاتم عليه اسم الله تعالى  ، فإن دخل وهو عليه فليحوله عن يده اليسرى إذا أراد الاستنجاء .


It is not permissible to enter the washroom with a ring having the name of Allah تعالى on it.  If he does enter it and he is wearing such a ring, then he must remove it from his left hand when he wants to do istinja.


فإذا أراد الخروج من الخلاء، فليخرج رجله اليمنى قبل اليسرى ، ويمسح يده على بطنه، ويقولالحمد لله الذي عرفني لذته، وأبقى قوته في جسدي، وأخرج عني أذاه، يا لها من  نعمة، ثلاث مرات .


When he wants to leave the washroom, he is to exit with the right leg before the left, and wipe his hand upon his stomach, saying “Praise be to Allah who has made known to me its delight, has left its strength in my body, has removed from me its harm, O what a blessing!” three times.


والوضوء مرة  مرة ، وهو غسل الوجه واليدين، ومسح الرأس والقدمين .


Wudu is done one time.  It is the washing of the face and the two hands, and the wiping of the head and the two feet.


ولا يجوز أن يقدم شيئا على شئ، يبدأ بالأول فالأول كما أمر الله عز وجل .


It is not permissible to precede one thing over another.  One commences with the first, the first being as Allah عز وجل has commanded.


ومن توضأ مرتين لم يؤجر ، ومن توضأ ثلاثا فقد أبدع .


One who washes twice is not rewarded (for it), and one who washes three times has committed a bid’a.


ومن غسل الرجلين فقد خالف الكتاب والسنة ، ومن مسح على الخفين فقد خالف الكتاب والسنة .


One who washes the two feet has opposed the Book and the Sunna.  One who wipes over the khuffayn has opposed the Book and the Sunna.


ولا يجوز المسح على العمامة والجورب .


It is not permissible to wipe over the turban or the sock.


ولا تقية في ثلاثة أشياءفي شرب المسكر، والمسح على الخفين ، ومتعة الحج .


There no taqiyya in three things: in drinking intoxicants, wiping over the khuffayn, and the mut’a of Hajj.


وحد الوجه الذي يجب أن يوضأ ما دارت عليه الوسطى والإبهام  وحد اليدين إلى المرفقين ، وحد الرأس مقدار أربع أصابع  من مقدمة  .


The bound of the face that is necessary to be washed is what the middle finger and thumb may encompass, the bound of the hands is up to the elbows, and the bound of the head is the extent of four fingers from its front part. (translator's note: in al-Faqih, Saduq mentions the wiping of the head as being with three fingers)


والمسح على الرجلين إلى الكعبين .


The wiping of the feet is up to the two mounds.


فإذا توضأت المرأة ألقت قناعها عن  موضع مسح رأسها في صلاة الغداة والمغرب ، وتمسح  عليه، ويجزيها في سائر الصلوات أن تدخل إصبعها، فتمسح على رأسها من غير أن تلقي قناعها .


If a woman performs wudu she will remove her veil from the place of wiping of her head and wipe it, for the fajr and maghrib salat.  It is suffices for the rest of the prayers that she place her finger under it (i.e. the veil) and wipe the head, without having to remove her veil.


والمضمضة والاستنشاق ليسا  من الوضوء ، وهما سنة لا سنة الوضوء ، لأن الوضوء فريضة كله ، ولكنهما من الحنيفية التي قال الله عز وجل لنبيه (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): (واتبع ملة إبراهيم حنيفا، وهي عشر سننخمس في الرأس، وخمس في الجسد.


Mouth-rinsing (al-madmada) and nose-rinsing (al-istinshaq) are not a part of wudu.  They are a sunna, but not a sunna of the wudu for all of wudu is a farida.  However, they are from the Hanifiyya of which Allah عز وجل said to His Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله “and he follows the way of Ibrahim as a hanif”, and they are ten traditions (sunan): five for the head, and five for the body.


فأما التي في الرأس فالمضمضة، والاستنشاق، والسواك، وقص الشارب، والفرق لمن طول شعر رأسه .


As to those of the head: mouth-rinsing, nose-rinsing, the siwak, trimming the mustache, and parting (the hair) for one who lengthens the hair of his head.


وروي أن من لم يفرق شعره  فرقه الله عز وجل يوم القيامة بمنشار من النار .


It is related that one who does not part his hair, Allah عز وجل will part him (or, it) on the day of resurrection with a saw from the Fire.


وأما التي في الجسدفالاستنجاء، والختان، وحلق العانة، وقص الأظافير، ونتف الإبطين .


As to those of the body: istinja, circumcision, shaving the pubes, trimming the nails, and tweezing the armpits.


وكل من شك في الوضوء  وهو قاعد على حال الوضوء فليعد، ومن شك في الوضوء وقد قام عن مكانه  فلا يلتفت إلى الشك إلا أن يستيقن .


Someone who doubts about the wudu while he is sitting in the state of wudu (i.e. in the state of performing it), then he is to repeat.  Someone who doubts about the wudu after getting up from his place, then he is to pay no attention to the doubt unless he becomes certain. 


ومن استنجى على ما وصفناه ، ثم رأى بعد ذلك  بللا فلا شئ عليه، وإن بلغ الساق فلا ينقض  الوضوء ، ولا يغسل منه الثوب، فإن  ذلك من الحبائل  والبواسير .


Someone who performs istinja as we have described it, and after that he sees some liquid, there is nothing upon him even if it should reach to the thigh.  So it would not break the wudu, nor would the clothes have to be washed, for that is from the veins (lit. cords) and hemorrhoids.


ولا ينقض  الوضوء إلا ما (١٢) يخرج من الطرفينمن بول، أو غائط، أو ريح، أو مني ، وما سوى ذلك من مذي، ووذي  جميعا، وقئ وقلس ، ورعاف، وحجامة، ودماميل، وجروح، وقروح وغير ذلك، فإنه لا ينقض الوضوء .


Nothing breaks the wudu except that which exits from the two ends: from urine, stool, flatulence, or semen.  As to madhi (pre-ejaculatory fluid) and wadhi (post-ejaculatory fluid) both, and vomit, belching, nosebleeds, cupping, sores, wounds, ulcers and other than that, they do not break the wudu.


ولا يجوز تبعيض الوضوء .


It is not permitted to partition the wudu.


وقال النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): إفتحوا عيونكم  عند الوضوء، لعلها لا ترى نار جهنم .


The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله said “Open your eyes during the wudu so that they might not see the fire of Jahannam.”


ولا بأس أن يصلي الرجل بوضوء واحد صلوات  الليل والنهار كلها، ما لم يحدث .


There is no objection to a man praying all of the salat of the day and night with a single wudu, so long as he does not have a hadath (i.e. does not break his wudu).