Chapter 6

6 - باب الإسلام والإيمان

Islam (submission) and Iman (faith)

الإسلام هو الإقرار بالشهادتين ، وهو الذي يحقن به الدماء والأموال ، ومن قال: " لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله " فقد حقن ماله ودمه إلا بحقيهما ، وعلى الله حسابه  .

Islam is the affirmation of the two testimonies (shahadatayn).  It is that by which blood and property are spared.  Whoso says, “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, his blood and property are spared, except in matters of justice, and his reckoning us upon Allah.

والإيمان هو الإقرار  باللسان، وعقد  بالقلب، وعمل بالجوارح ، وإنه  يزيد بالأعمال، وينقص بتركها .

Iman is affirmation by the tongue, covenant of the heart, and action by the limbs.  It is increased by deeds, and weakened by their neglect.

وكل مؤمن مسلم، وليس كل مسلم مؤمن ، ومثل ذلك مثل الكعبة والمسجد، فمن دخل الكعبة فقد دخل المسجد، وليس كل من دخل المسجد دخل الكعبة .

Every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer.  The similitude of that is the example of the Ka`ba and the Masjid.  One who enters the Ka`ba has entered the Masjid, but not everyone who has entered the Masjid has thereby entered the Ka`ba.

وقد فرق الله عز وجل في كتابه بين الإسلام والإيمان، فقال : ﴿قالت الأعراب آمنا قل لم تؤمنوا ولكن قولوا أسلمنا .

Allah عز وجل has distinguished in His book between Islam and Iman.  He said, “The Bedouins have said 'We have brought faith'.  Say: You have not brought faith, rather say, 'we have submitted'.”

وقد بين الله عز وجل أن الإيمان قول وعمل بقوله : ﴿إنما المؤمنون الذين إذا ذكر الله وجلت قلوبهم وإذا تليت عليهم آياته زادتهم إيمانا وعلى ربهم يتوكلون * الذين يقيمون الصلاة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون * أولئك هم المؤمنون حقا﴾  .

Allah عز وجل has explained that faith is saying and action by His saying, “The believers are only those who when they remember Allah, their hearts are fearful and when His signs are recited to them it increases for them their faith and upon their Lord do they rely.  Those who establish the prayer, and of what we have provided them they give charity.  Those are in truth the believers.”

وأما قوله عز وجل: ﴿فأخرجنا من كان فيها من المؤمنين * فما وجدنا فيها غير بيت من المسلمين، فليس ذلك بخلاف ما ذكرنا، لأن المؤمن يسمى مسلما، والمسلم لا يسمى مؤمنا حتى يأتي مع إقراره بعمل .

However as to His عز وجل saying, “So We brought out of it those who were believers.  We found not in it but one house of those who submitted”, this does not contradict what we have mentioned, for the believer is called a submitter.  The submitter (muslim) is not called a believer (mu’min) until he affirms it through action.

وأما قوله عز وجل: ﴿ومن يبتغ غير الإسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين﴾  فقد سئل الصادق (عليه السلام) عن ذلك، فقال: هو الإسلام الذي فيه الإيمان .

As to His saying عز وجل “One who seeks a religion other than Islam, it shall never be accepted of him and in the Hereafter he shall be amongst the losers.”  As-Sadiq عليه السلام was asked about this, so he said, “It is the submission wherein there is faith.”