Mas'ala fi 'n-Nass `Ali - 1

مسألة في النص على علي عليه السلام 

الشيخ المفيد محمد بن محمد بن النعمان


Question regarding the designation of `Ali عليه السلام – 1

Shaykh al-Mufid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. an-Nu`man


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم والحمد لله ولي كل نعمة


By the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, and praise be to Allah, the possesor of every blessing.


سأل سائل فقال : إذا كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عندكم قد نص على أمير المؤمنين سلام الله عليه ، واستخلفه على أمته ، فلم قعد عن حق له ، وقد عول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله عليه فيه ؟


A questioner asked a question.  He said:  If according to you the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله had designated `Ali, Amir al-Mu’mineen, the peace of Allah be upon him, and appointed him as successor over his nation, then why did he refrain from a right that belonged to him, and the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله had imposed upon him in it?


فان قلتم : فعل ذلك باختياره . نسبتموه إلى التضييع لامر الله وأمر رسوله . وإن قلتم : فعل ذلك مضطرا . نسبتموه إلى الجبن والضعف ، وقد علم الناس منه خلاف ذلك ، لانه صاحب المواقف المشهورة ، والفروسية المذكورة . وبعد ذلك ، فلم أخذ عطاياهم ، ونكح سبيهم ، وصلى خلفهم ، وحكم في مجالسهم ؟ ! وكل ذلك يدل على فساد ما ذهبهتبم إليه في النص .


So if you say “He did that by his choice,” you have attributed neglecting the command of Allah and the command of His Messenger to him.

And if you say “He did that out of necessity,” then you have attributed cowardice and weakness to him, and the people have known the opposite of that from him for he is the possessor of famous stations and mentioned bravery.

Moreover, why did he take their gifts (`ataya), and have nikah with their captives, and do salat behind them, and give judgment in their assemblies?  All of that gives evidence to the corruption of what you believe in with regards to designation.


الجواب : قيل له : اما أخذه العطايا ، إنما أخذ بعض حقه . واما الصلاة خلفهم ، فهو الامام ، من تقدم بين يديه فصلاته فاسدة ، على أن كلا مؤد فريضة . وأما نكاحه من سبيهم ، ففيه جوابان :

أحدهما : على طريق الممانعة .

والآخر : على طرية المتابعة .


The answer:  It is said to him: As to the taking of the gifts, it was only the taking of some of his right.

And as to the salat behind them, then he is the Imam.  Whosoever preceded him, then his salat was void, it is an obligation upon them both.

And to his nikah with their captives, then there are two answers for it:

The first of them:  by manner of opposition (tariq al-mumana`a).

And the other:  by manner of pursuance (tariq al-mutaba`a).


فاما الذي على طريق الممانعة ، فان الشيعة تروي أن الحنفية تزوجها من خالها القاسم بن مسلم الحنفي ، واستدلوا على ذلك ، بأن عمر ابن الخطاب لما رد من كان أبو بكر سباه ، لم يرد الحنفية ، ولو كانت من السبي لردها .


And as to (answering it by) the manner of opposition, the Shi`a narrate that the Hanafiyya (Khawla bint Ja`far b. Qays) was married through her maternal uncle, al-Qasim b. Muslim al-Hanafi.  They infer that by (the fact) that when `Umar b. al-Khattab returned whoever Abu Bakr had captured, he did not return the Hanafiyya, (that) were she of the captives then he would have returned her (as well).


وأما الذي على طريق المتابعة : فهو انا إذا سلمنا لكم أنه نكح من سبيهم ، لم يكن لكم فيه ما أردتم ، لان الذين سباهم أبو بكر كانوا قادحين في نبوة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، ومن قدح في نبوته كفر ، ونكاحهم حلال لكل أحد ، ولو سباهم يزيد . وإنما كان يسوغ لكم ما ذكرتموه لو كان الذي سباهم قادحين في إمامته ، فنكح أمير المؤمنين سلام الله عليه من سبيهم ، لكن الامر خلاف ذلك .


And as to (answering by) the manner of pursuance, then it is that even were we to accept for you that he performed nikah from their captives, then it would (still) not be what you want. For, those who Abu Bakr captured were calumniators of the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله, and whoever slanders his prophethood becomes an unbeliever (commits kufr), and their nikah (in terms of being captured through battle) is lawful for everyone, even if it were Yazid who captured them.  What you have mentioned would only be warranted for you had those who were captured been calumniators in his Imamate, (and) then had Amir al-Munineen, the peace of Allah be upon him, done nikah from their captives.  However, the affair is different from that.


وأما حكمه في مجالسهم ، فانه لو قدر الا يدعهم يحكمون حكما احدا لفعل ، إذ الحكم له وإليه دونهم .  وبالله التوفيق .


And as to his judgment in their assemblies, had he been able to not leave them judging a single judgment he would have done so, for judgment was for him and his (alone) without them.   And success is with Allah.


قال من كتب بخطه هذه المسألة : إختصرها كاتبها ، وليست مستوفاة حسب ما أملاها رضي الله عنه ، وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد النبي وآله اجمعين الطيبين الطاهرين .


The one who wrote this question wrote in his handwriting: Its writer has abbreviated it, and it is not exactly in accordance to what he, may Allah be pleased with him, dictated of it.  And may Allah bless our master Muhammad, the Prophet, and his family, all of them, the good, the pure.