Chapter 1 - The obligation of abstaining from eating and drinking and the non-invalidation of the fast by anything other than the stipulated mufṭirāt (acts which invalidate the fast)

[ 12753 ] 1 ـ محمد بن الحسن بإسناده عن الحسين بن سعيد ، وبإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن يعقوب بن يزيد ، وبإسناده عن علي بن مهزيار جميعا ، عن ابن أبي عمير ، عن حماد بن عثمان ، عن محمد بن مسلم قال : سمعت أبا جعفر ( عليه السلام ) يقول : لا يضر الصائم ما صنع إذا اجتنب ثلاث خصال : الطعام والشراب ، والنساء ، والارتماس في الماء . وفي رواية محمد بن علي بن محبوب : أربعة خصالورواه الصدوق بإسناده عن محدم بن مسلم مثله .


1 – Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan by his isnād from al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd and by his isnād from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb from Yaʿqūb b. Yazīd and by his isnād from ʿAlī b. Mahziyār all from Ibn Abī ʿUmayr from Ḥammād b. ʿUthmān from Muḥammad b. Muslim.  

He said: I heard Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام saying: Nothing the fasting person does harms him if he abstains from three habits: eating and drinking, and women, and immersing himself in water.

And in the narration of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb: Four habits.

And al-Ṣadūq has narrated it by his isnād from Muḥammad b. Muslim likewise.


[ 12754 ] 2 ـ وعن علي بن مهزيار ، عن الحسن بن القاسم ، عن علي ، عن أبي بصير قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : ليس الصيام من الطعام والشراب ، والانسان ينبغي له أن يحفظ لسانه من اللغو والباطل في رمضان وغيره .


2 – And from ʿAlī b. Mahziyār from al-Ḥasan b. al-Qāsim from ʿAlī from Abū Baṣīr.  He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said: Fasting is not from food and drink, and man ought to guard his tongue from nonsense and falsehood during Ramaḍān and other than it. 


[ 12755 ] 3 ـ علي بن الحسين المرتضى في رسالة ( المحكم والمتشابه ) نقلا من ( تفسير النعماني ) بإسناده الآتي عن علي ( عليه السلام ) قال : وأما حدود الصوم فأربعة حدود : أولها اجتناب الاكل والشرب ، والثاني : اجتناب النكاح ، والثالث اجتناب القيء متعمّداً ، والرابع اجتناب الاغتماس في الماء وما يتصل بها وما يجري مجراها والسنن كلها .


3 – ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. al-Murtaḍā in his epistle al-Muḥkam wa al-Mutashābih transmitting from Tafsīr al-Nuʿmānī by his isnād that is coming from ʿAlī عليه السلام.  He said: As to the bounds of the fast, there are four bounds: the first of them is the avoidance of eating and drinking, the second is the avoidance of intercourse, the third is the avoidance of vomiting intentionally, and the fourth is the avoidance of submersion in water and what relates to it and what takes its course and all of the sunan.


أقول : وتقدم ما يدل على ذلك ، ويأتي ما يدل عليه في أحاديث كفارات الصوم ، وفي أحاديث الكحل للصائم ، وغير ذلك ، ويأتي جملة من أحاديث حصر المفطرات


I say: There has preceded what indicates upon that (ch. 1-2 in chpts. “the obligation of the fast”), and there is coming what indicates upon in the ḥadīths on the atonement of the fast (ch. 9-10, ch. 11.1, ch. 22.1 in these chpts.), and in the ḥadīths on kohl for the fasting person (ch. 25 in these chpts.), and other than that (ch. 37, ch. 39.2, ch. 42-44, ch. 57 in these chpts.; ch. 13.5, ch. 16 in chpts. “who the fast is sound from”), and a sum from the ḥadīths is coming in constraint of the mufṭirāt (ch. 2.6 in these chpts., ch. 11 in chpts. “etiquette of the fasting person”).