Chapter 8 – Whoever breaks his fast a day from the month of Ramaḍān on purpose, along with the qaḍā a chosen atonement is obligatory upon him: freeing a slave, or a fast of two consequtive months, or feeding sixty poor people a mudd for every poor person; so if he is incapable he gives charity by whatever he is able to, and if someone else donates the atonement for him it suffices him, and it is allowed for him to feed himself and his dependents in that case with eligibility

[ 12789 ] 1 ـ محمد بن يعقوب ، عن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى ، عن الحسن بن محبوب ، عن عبدالله بن سنان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في رجل أفطر من شهر رمضان متعمدا يوما واحدا من غير عذر ، قال : يعتق نسمة ، أو يصوم شهرين متتابعين ، أو يطعم ستين مسكينا ، فان لم يقدر تصدق بما يطيق . ورواه الصدوق بإسناده عن الحسن بن محبوب . ورواه الشيخ بإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن العباس عن بن المغيرة عن عبدالله بن سنان مثله


1 – Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb from a number of our companions from Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā from al-Ḥasan b. Maḥbūb from ʿAbdullāh b. Sinān from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام regarding a man who broke his fast one day from the month of the Ramaḍān on purpose without an excuse.  

He said: He emancipates a person (a slave), or he fasts two consecutive months, or he feed sixty indigents.  If he is not able to, he gives charity by what he can bear.

And al-Ṣadūq narrated it by his isnād from al-Ḥasan b. Maḥbūb.

And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnād from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb from al-ʿAbbās b. al-Mughīra from ʿAbdullāh b. Sinān likewise.


[ 12790 ] 2 ـ وعن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن أبيه ، وعن محمد بن إسماعيل ، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا ، عن ابن أبي عمير ، عن جميل بن دراج ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن رجل أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان متعمدا ؟ فقال : إن رجلا أتى النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) فقال : هلكت يا رسول الله ! فقال : مالك ؟ قال : النار يا رسول الله ! قال : ومالك ؟ قال : وقعت على أهلي ، قال : تصدق واستغفر فقال الرجل : فوالذي عظم حقك ما تركت في البيت شيئا ، لا قليلا ولا كثيرا ، قال : فدخل رجل من الناس بمكتل من تمر فيه عشرون صاعا يكون عشرة أصوع بصاعنا ، فقال له رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) : خذ هذا التمر فتصدق به ، فقال : يا رسول الله على من أتصدق به وقد أخبرتك أنه ليس في بيتي قليل ولا كثير ، قال : فخذه واطعمه عيالك واستغفر الله ، قال : فلما خرجنا قال أصحابنا : إنه بدأ بالعتق ، فقال : أعتق ، أو صم ، أو تصدق


2 – And from ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm from his father and from Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl from al-Faḍl b. Shādhān all from Ibn Abī ʿUmayr from Jamīl b. Darrāj from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام that he was asked about a man who broke his fast one day from the month of Ramaḍān on purpose.  

He said: A man came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and said: I have been destroyed O Messenger of God!  

He said: What is the matter with you?  

He said: The Fire, O Messenger of God!  

He said: And what is the matter with you?  

He said: I had intercourse with my wife.  

He said: Give charity and seek forgiveness.  

So the man said: So by the One who glorified your truth, I have not left anything in my house, not a little or a lot.  

He said: So a man entered from the people with a large basket (miktal) of dates in which there were twenty ṣāʿ (a measure), being ten ṣāʿ of our ṣāʿ.  

The Messenger of God صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to him: Take these dates and give charity with them.  

So he said: O Messenger of God, to whom shall I give charity with it when I have informed you that there is not a little or a lot in my house.  

He said: Take it and feed your family with it, and seek forgiveness of God.  

He said: So when we went out, our companions said: He began with emancipation (of a slave).  So he said: Emancipate, or fast, or give charity.


[ 12791 ] 3 ـ وعنه ، عن أبيه ، عن ابن أبي عمير ، عن عبدالله بن سنان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في رجل وقع على أهله في شهر رمضان فلم يجد ما يتصدق به على ستين مسكينا ، قال : يتصدق بقدر ما يطيق . ورواه الشيخ بإسناده عن الحسين بن سعيد ، عن ابن أبي عمير مثله


3 – And from him from his father from Ibn Abī ʿUmayr from ʿAbdullāh b. Sinān from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام regarding a man who had intercourse with his wife in the month of Ramaḍān, and did not find what he can give charity with for sixty indigents.  

He said: He gives charity as much as he can bear.

And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnād from al-usayn b. Saʿīd from Ibn Abī ʿUmayr likewise.


( 12792 ) 4 ـ وعن حميد بن زياد ، عن الحسن بن محمد ، عن سماعة ، عن غير واحد ، عن أبان بن عثمان ، عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي عبدالله قال : سألته عن رجل أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان متعمداً ؟ قال : يتصدق بعشرين صاعا ويقضي مكانه . ورواه الشيخ بإسناده عن محمد بن يعقوب وكذا كل ما قبله . أقول : تقدم أنه يتصدق على كل مسكين بمد ، ويأتي ما يدل عليه في هذا الباب وغيره فيحمل الزائد هنا على الاستحباب


4 – And from Ḥumayd b. Ziyād from al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad from Samāʿa from more than one from Abān b. ʿUthmān from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī ʿAbdillāh.  He said: I asked him about a man who broke his fast on a day of the month of Ramaḍān on purpose.  

He said: He gives charity with twenty ṣāʿ and does the qaḍā of its place.

And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnād from Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb (Note: not found in al-Tahdhīb) and thus all that was prior to it.

I say: It has preceeded that he gives charity to every poor person by a mudd, and there is coming what indicates upon it in this chapter and other than it (ch. 4.4 from these chpts.), so the additional (amount) is interpreted here to be upon recommendation (h. 10 and 12 from this ch., chpts. 12 and 14 from the chpts. “atonements”).


[ 12793 ] 5 ـ محمد بن علي بن الحسين بإسناده عن عبدالمؤمن بن الهيثم الانصاري ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) أن رجلا أتى النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) فقال : هلكت وأهلكت ! فقال : وما أهلكك ؟ قال : أتيت امرأتي في شهر رمضان وأنا صائم ، فقال له النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) اعتق رقبة ، قال : لا أجد ، قال فصم شهرين متتابعين ، قال : لا اطيق ، قال ، تصدق على ستين مسكينا ، قال : لا أجد ، فاتى النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) بعذق في مكتل فيه خمسة عشر صاعا من تمر ، فقال له النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) : خذ هذا فتصدق بها ، فقال : والذي بعثك بالحق نبيا ما بين لابتيها أهل بيت أحوج إليه منا ، فقال : خذه وكله أنت وأهلك فانه كفارة لك . ورواه في ( معاني الاخبار ) عن أبيه ، عن سعد ، عن موسى بن الحسن ، عن محمد بن عبدالحميد ، عن سيف بن عميرة ، عن منصور بن حازم ، عن عبدالمؤمن بن القاسم الانصاري ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) مثله . ثم قال : قال سيف بن عميرة وحدثني به عمرو بن شمر ، عن جابر بن يزيد ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) مثله . ورواه في ( المقنع ) مرسلا


5 – Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-Husayn by his isnād from ʿAbd al-Mu’min b. al-Haytham al-Anṣārī from Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام that a man came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and said: I have been destroyed and I have destroyed!  

So he said: And what has destroyed you?  

He said: I had intercourse with my wife in the month of Ramaḍān while I was fasting.  

So the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to him: Emancipate a slave.  

He said: I do not find (the means).  

He said: So fast two consecutive months.  

He said: I cannot endure it.  

He said: Give charity to sixty poor people.  

He said: I do not find (the means).  

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was brought a large basket in which there was fifteen ṣāʿ of dates.  The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to him: Take this and give charity with it.  

So he said: By the One who sent you with the truth as a prophet, there is no people of a house between its two stony tracts (i.e. Medina) who are more in need of it than us.  

So he said: Take it and eat it, you and your family, for it is an atonement for you.

And he narrated it in Maʿānī al-Akhbār from his father from Saʿd from Mūsā b. al-Ḥasan from Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd from Sayf b. ʿAmīra from Manṣūr b. Ḥāzim from ʿAbd al-Mu’min b. al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī from Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام likewise.

Then he said: Sayf b. ʿAmīra said: And ʿAmr b. Shimr narrated it to me from Jābir b. Yazīd from Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام likewise.

And he narrated it in al-Muqniʿ in a mursal fashion.


[ 12794 ] 6 ـ وبإسناده عن محمد بن النعمان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن رجل أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان ، فقال : كفارته جريبان من طعام وهو عشرون صاعا . ورواه الشيخ بإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن إبراهيم بن هاشم ، عن آدم ابن إسحاق ، عن رجل ، عن محمد بن النعمان مثله


6 – And by his isnād from Muḥammad b. an-Nuʿman from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام that he was asked about a man who broke his fast one day from the month of Ramaḍān.  

He said: His atonement (kaffāra) is two jarīb of food, and it is twenty ṣāʿ.

And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnād from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb from Ibrāhīm b. Hāshim from Ādam b. Isḥāq from a man from Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān likewise.


[ 12795 ] 7 ـ وبإسناده عن جميل بن دراج عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) إن المكتل الذي اتي به النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كان فيه عشرون صاعا من تمر .


7 – And by his isnād from Jamīl b. Darrāj from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام that the large basket which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم brought had twenty ṣāʿ of dates in it.


[ 12796 ] 8 ـ وبإسناده عن إدريس بن هلال ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن رجل أتى أهله في شهر رمضان ، قال عليه عشرون صاعا من تمر ، فبذلك أمر النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) الرجل الذي أتاه فسأله عن ذلك


8 – And by his isnād from Idrīs b. Hilāl from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام that he was asked about a man who had intercourse with his wife in the month of Ramaḍān.  

He said: Twenty ṣāʿ of dates is upon him, and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم commanded that to the man who came to him and asked him about that.


[ 12797 ] 9 ـ علي بن جعفر في كتابه عن أخيه موسى بن جعفر ( عليهما السلام ) قال : سألته عن رجل نكح امرأته وهو صائم في رمضان ، ما عليه ؟ قال : عليه القضاء وعتق رقبة ، فان لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين ، فان لم يستطع فاطعام ستين مسكينا ، فان لم يجد فليستغفر الله . أقول : هذا محمول على الاستحباب والافضلية لما مضى ويأتي ، أو على التقية


9 - ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar in his book from his brother Mūsā b. Jaʿfar عليهما السلام.  He said: I asked him about a man who had sex with him wife while he is fasting in Ramaḍān, what is upon him?  

He said: The qaḍā and emancipating a slave is upon him.  And if he did not find (the means), then a fast of two consecutive months.  And if he is not able to, then feeding sixty poor people.  And if he does not find (the means), then he is to seek forgiveness of God.

I say: This is interpreted to be upon recommendation and preferability due to what has passed (h. 1 from this ch.) and what is coming (h. 13 from this ch., ch. 16.2 from these chpts.), or upon taqiyya.


 [ 12798 ] 10 ـ محمد بن الحسن بإسناده عن سعد ، عن أبي جعفر - يعني أحمد بن محمد ـ عن الحسين بن سعيد ، عن فضالة بن أيوب ، عن أبان بن عثمان ، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي عبدالله ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) قال : سألته عن رجل أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان متعمدا ، قال : عليه خمسة عشر صاعاُ ، لكل مسكين مد بمد النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) أفضل . وبهذا الاسناد مثله ، إلا أنه قال : لكل مسكين مد مثل الذي صنع رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) . وبإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن الحسين بن سعيد مثله


10 – Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan by his isnād from Saʿd from Abū Jaʿfar – meaning Aḥmad b. Muḥammad – from al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd from Faḍāla b. Ayyūb from Abān b. ʿUthman from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī ʿAbdillāh from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about a man who broke his fast one day from the month of Ramaḍān on purpose.  

He said: Fifteen ṣāʿ are upon him, a mudd for every poor person by the mudd of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is best.

And by this isnād likewise, except that he said: a mudd for every poor person the like of which the Messenger of God صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم made.

And by his isnād from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb from al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd likewise.


 [ 12799 ] 11 ـ وعن سعد ، عن أبي جعفر ، عن محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر ، عن المشرقي ، عن أبي الحسن ( عليه السلام ) قال : سألته عن رجل أفطر من شهر رمضان أياما متعمدا ما عليه من الكفارة ؟ فكتب : من أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان متعمدا فعليه عتق رقبة مؤمنة ويصوم يوما بدل يوم


11 – And from Saʿd from Abū Jaʿfar from Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Abū al-Khaṭṭāb from Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Abī Naṣr from al-Mashriqī from Abū al-Ḥasan عليه السلام. He said: I asked him about a man who broke his fast for some days from the month of Ramaḍān on purpose – what of the atonment upon him? 

He wrote: Whoever breaks his fast on a day from the month of Ramaḍān on purpose, the emancipation of a slave is upon him and he fasts a day in place of that day.


 [ 12800 ] 12 ـ وبإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن محمد بن الحسين ، عن عثمان بن عيسى ، عن سماعة قال : سألته عن رجل لزق بأهله فأنزل ؟ قال : عليه إطعام ستين مسكينا ، مد لكل مسكين . أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى في ( نوادره ) عن عثمان بن عيسى ، عن سماعة بن مهران مثله


12 – And by his isnād from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Maḥbūb from Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn from ʿUthmān b. ʿĪsā from Samāʿa.  He said: I asked him about a man who clung to his wife and so he ejaculated.  

He said: The feeding of sixty poor people is upon him, a mudd for each poor person.

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā in his Nawādir from ʿUthmān b. ʿĪsā from Samāʿa b. Mihrān likewise.


 [ 12801 ] 13 ـ وعنه ، عن سماعة قال : سألته عن رجل أتى أهله في شهر رمضان متعمدا ؟ قال : عليه عتق رقبة ، أو إطعام ستين مسكينا ، أو صوم شهرين متتابعين ، وقضاء ذلك اليوم ، ومن أين له مثل ذلك اليوم . ورواه الشيخ بإسناده عن الحسين بن سعيد عن عثمان بن عيسى


13 – And from him from Samāʿa.  He said: I said asked him a man who had intercourse with his wife in the month of Ramaḍān on purpose.  

He said: The emancipation of a slave is upon him, or the feeding of sixty poor people, or the fast of two consecutive months, and the qaḍā of that day.  And from where shall he have the like of that day.

And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnād from al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd from ʿUthman b. ʿĪsā.


 أقول : وتقدم ما يدل على ذلك ، ويأتي ما يدل عليه ، ويأتي ما ظاهره نفي وجوب الكفارة ، وأنه محمول على النسيان أو على الجهل بالتحريم ، ويأتي ما ظاهره إيجاب كفارة الجمع ، وأنه محمول على الافطار على محرم .


I say: And there has preceded what indicates upon that (ch. 2, ch. 4 from these chpts.), and there is coming what indicates upon it (ch. 10, 11, 12, 16, 22, 33.5 from these chtps.), and there is coming what what on the surface is a denial of the obligation of the atonement (ch. 9.11 from these chpts), and it is only interpreted to be upon forgetfulness or upon ignorance of the forbiddance.  And there is coming what on the surface is the obligation of the combined atonement, and it is interpreted to be upon the one in state of forbiddance (or: upon the forbidden) breaking his fast (ch. 10.2 from these chpts.).