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`Abasa

سورة عبس‏

 

Sura `Abasa (He frowned)

 

بِسمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحمـٰنِ الرَّحيمِ

 

By the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

عَبَسَ وَتَوَلّىٰ ﴿١﴾

 

1 – He frowned and turned away

 

أَن جاءَهُ الأَعمىٰ ﴿٢﴾

 

2 – Because the blind man came unto him

 

وَما يُدريكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكّىٰ ﴿٣﴾

 

3 – But what should make you know whether haply he may be cleansed

 

أَو يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ الذِّكرىٰ ﴿٤﴾

 

4 – Or yet remember and the reminder profit him

 

أَمّا مَنِ استَغنىٰ ﴿٥﴾

 

5 – But as for him who is wealthy

  

فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدّىٰ ﴿٦﴾

 

6 – So unto him do you pay regard

  

وَما عَلَيكَ أَلّا يَزَّكّىٰ ﴿٧﴾

 

7 – Yet is it not your concern if he be not cleansed

 

وَأَمّا مَن جاءَكَ يَسعىٰ ﴿٨﴾

 

8 – But as for him who comes to you in earnest

 

وَهُوَ يَخشىٰ ﴿٩﴾

 

9 – And having fear

 

فَأَنتَ عَنهُ تَلَهّىٰ ﴿١٠﴾

 

10 – Then from him you are diverted

 

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: نزلت في عثمان و ابن أم مكتوم، و كان ابن أم مكتوم مؤذنا لرسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله)، و كان أعمى، فجاء إلى رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) و عنده أصحابه، و عثمان عنده، فقدمه رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) على عثمان، فعبس عثمان وجهه و تولى عنه، فأنزل الله: عَبَسَ وَ تَوَلَّى [يعني عثمان‏] أَنْ جاءَهُ الْأَعْمى وَ ما يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّى أي يكون طاهرا أزكى أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ قال: يذكره رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) فَتَنْفَعَهُ الذِّكْرى.

ثم خاطب عثمان، فقال: أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنى فَأَنْتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى، قال: أنت إذا جاءك غني تتصدى له و ترفعه: وَ ما عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّى أي لا تبالي زكيا كان أو غير زكي، إذا كان غنيا وَ أَمَّا مَنْ جاءَكَ يَسْعى يعني ابن أم مكتوم وَ هُوَ يَخْشى فَأَنْتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى أي تلهو و لا تلتفت إليه.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: `Ali b. Ibrahim said: It was sent down regarding `Uthman and Ibn Umm Maktum.   Ibn Umm Maktum was a mu’adhdhin for the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله and he was blind. He came to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله while his companions were with him, and `Uthman was with him.  So the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله introduced him to `Uthman, and `Uthman frowned his face and turned away from him.  So Allah sent down “He frowned and turned away” [meaning `Uthman] “Because the blind man came unto him.  But what should make you know whether haply he may be cleansed” that is, that he may be pure, cleansed “Or yet remember” He said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله is reminding him “and the reminder profit him”.

Then He addressed `Uthman, so He said “But as for him who is wealthy, so unto him do you pay regard” He said: When a rich man comes to you then you pay regard to him and elevate him “Yet is it not your concern if he be not cleansed” that is, you do not care whether he is pure or not pure, when he is rich “But as for him who comes to you in earnest” meaning Ibn Umm Maktum “and having fear, then from him you are diverted” that is, you are diverted and pay no attention to him.

 

في مجمع البيان قيل نزلت الاية في عبدالله بن ام مكتوم وهو عبدالله بن شريح بن مالك بن ربيعة الفهرى من بنى عامر بن لوى. وذلك انه اتى رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) وهو يناجى عتبة بن ربيعة وأبا جهل بن هشام والعباس بن عبدالمطلب وأبيا و امية ابنى خلف يدعوهم إلى الله ويرجوا اسلامهم، فقال: يا رسول الله اقربنى وعلمنى مما علمك الله، فجعل يناديه وكرر النداء ولا يدرى انه مشتغل مقبل على غيره، حتى ظهرت الكراهية في وجه رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) لقطعة كلامه. وقال في نفسه: يقول هؤلاء الصناديد انما اتباعه العميان والعبيد فأعرض واقبل على القوم يكلمهم، فنزلت الايات وكان رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) اذا رآه قال: مرحبا بمن عاتبنى فيه ربى، ويقول: هل لك من حاجة؟ واستخلفه على المدينة مرتين في غزوتين، قال انس بن مالك: فرأيته يوم القادسية وعليه درع ومعه راية سوداء وروى عن الصادق (عليه السلام) قال: كان رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) اذا راى ام مكتوم قال: مرحبا لا والله لا يعاتبنى الله فيك ابدا وكان يصنع من اللطف حتى كان يكف عن النبى (صلى الله عليه وآله) مما يفعل به

 

Majma` al-Bayan: It is said that the aya was sent down regarding `Abdullah b. Umm Maktum, and he is `Abdullah b. Shurayh b. Malik b. Rabi`a al-Fahri from the Bani `Amir b. Lawi.  And that is that he came to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله while he was conversing with `Utba b. Rabi`a, Abu Jahl b. Hisham, al-`Abbas b. `Abd al-Muttalib, and Abya and Umayya the sons of Khalaf, calling them to Allah and hoping for their (acceptance of) Islam.  So he said: O Messenger of Allah, come near me and teach me from what Allah has taught you.  And he set about calling him and repeating the call, not knowing he was busy receiving (?) other than him, until dislike showed in the face of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله due to the interruption of his talk.  And he said in himself: These notables will say that only the blind and the slaves are his followers.  So he kept away and turned toward the group speaking to them.  So the ayat were sent down.  And when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله would see him, he would say: Welcome to he who my Lord reprimanded me concerning him, and he would say: Do you have a need?  And he left him in charge of Medina twice during two forays.

 Anas b. Malik said: So I saw him on the day of al-Qadisiyya (the key battle against Persia during the rule of `Umar) and he had an armament upon him, and with him was a black standard.

And it is narrated from as-Sadiq عليه السلام that he said: When the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و آله would see `Abdullah b. Umm Maktum he would say: Greetings, greetings,[by Allah] Allah has never reprimanded me regarding you.  And he would do that with him out of kindness so that (or: until) he would desist (?) from the Prophet of what he would do [to him].

 

وروى عن الصادق (عليه السلام) انها نزلت في رجل من بنى امية كان عند النبى (صلى الله عليه وآله)، فجائه ابن ام مكتوم فلما رآه تقذر منه وعبس وجمع نفسه وأعرض بوجهه عنه، فحكى الله سبحانه ذلك وانكره عليه.

 

And it is narrated from as-Sadiq عليه السلام that it was sent down regarding a man from the Banu Umayya who was with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله, and Ibn Umm Maktum came.  So when he saw him he shunned (?) him, frowned his face and collected himself, and kept his face from him.  So Allah سبحانه related that about him and censured him for it.

 

في مجمع البيان وفى الشواذ قرائة الحسن " آن جاءه " وقرائة أبى جعفر (عليه السلام) " تصدى " بضم التاء وفتح الصاد و " تلهى " بضم التاء ايضا.

 

And in the shawadh (irregular recitations), there is the qira’at of al-Hasan “aan jaa’ahu” (instead of “an jaa’ahu”) and in the qira’a of Abu Ja`far عليه السلام “tuSaddaa” with the Damm of the taa and fatH of the Sad (instead of “taSSadda” or “taSadda”) and “tulahhaa” with the Damm of the taa as well (instead of “talahhaa”).

 

كَلّا إِنَّها تَذكِرَةٌ ﴿١١﴾

 

11 – Nay, verily it is a reminder

 

فَمَن شاءَ ذَكَرَهُ ﴿١٢﴾

 

12 – So whoso wills shall remember it

 

في صُحُفٍ مُكَرَّمَةٍ ﴿١٣﴾

 

13 – In honored pages

 

مَرفوعَةٍ مُطَهَّرَةٍ ﴿١٤﴾

 

14 – Exalted, purified

 

بِأَيدي سَفَرَةٍ ﴿١٥﴾

 

15 – By the hands of scribes

 

كِرامٍ بَرَرَةٍ ﴿١٦﴾

 

16 – Noble, pious

 

علي بن إبراهيم: قوله تعالى: كَلَّا إِنَّها تَذْكِرَةٌ، قال: القرآن فِي صُحُفٍ مُكَرَّمَةٍ مَرْفُوعَةٍ، قال: عند الله مُطَهَّرَةٍ بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ، قال: بأيدي الأئمة كِرامٍ بَرَرَةٍ.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: His تعالى saying “Nay, verily it is a reminder” He said: the Quran “In honored pages, exalted, purified” He said: with Allah “By the hands of scribes” He said: by the hands of the Imams “noble, pious”.

 

محمد بن العباس: عن الحسين بن أحمد المالكي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن خلف بن حماد، عن أبي أيوب الخزاز، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، في قوله تعالى: بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ كِرامٍ بَرَرَةٍ، قال: «هم الأئمة (عليهم السلام)».

 

Ta’wil al-Ayat: Muhammad b. al-`Abbas from al-Husayn b. Ahmad al-Maliki from Muhammad b. `Isa from Yunus from Khalaf b. Hammad from Abu Ayyub the silk dealer from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام regarding His تعالى saying “By the hands of scribes, noble, pious” He said: They are the Imams عليهم السلام.

 

{ بأيدي سفرة } يعني الكتبة من الملائكة عن ابن عباس ومجاهد. وقيل: يعني السفراء بالوحي بين الله تعالى وبين رسله من السفارة وقال قتادة: هم القراء يكتبونها ويقرؤونها وروى فضيل بن يسار عن الصادق عليه السلام قال الحافظ: للقرآن العامل به مع السفرة الكرام البررة.

 

Majma` al-Bayan: “By the hands of scribes” meaning the writers from the angels according to Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid.  And it is said: It means the scribes of the revelation between Allah تعالى and His messengers from the office of the safir (min as-sifara ?).  And Qutada said: They are the reciters who write it and recite it.  And al-Fudayl b. Yasar narrated from as-Sadiq عليه السلام that he said: The hafizh of the Quran who acts by it is (or: will be) with the noble, pious scribes.

 

قُتِلَ الإِنسانُ ما أَكفَرَهُ ﴿١٧﴾

 

17 – The person was killed, what charged him with disbelief

 

Taranslator’s note: Another way of translating the above could be “Perish man, how ungrateful is he”.  The alternate translations will be used here depending on the tafsir given.

  

مِن أَيِّ شَيءٍ خَلَقَهُ ﴿١٨﴾

 

18 – Of which thing did He create him

 

مِن نُطفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ ﴿١٩﴾

 

19 – Of a nutfa, He created him and fashioned him

 

ثُمَّ السَّبيلَ يَسَّرَهُ ﴿٢٠﴾

 

20 – Then the path He did make easy for him

  

ثُمَّ أَماتَهُ فَأَقبَرَهُ ﴿٢١﴾

 

21 – Then causes him to die and buries him

  

ثُمَّ إِذا شاءَ أَنشَرَهُ ﴿٢٢﴾

 

22 – Then when He wills He will raise him (to life again)

 

كَلّا لَمّا يَقضِ ما أَمَرَهُ ﴿٢٣﴾

 

23 – Nay, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him to

  

علي بن إبراهيم: قُتِلَ الْإِنْسانُ ما أَكْفَرَهُ، قال: [هو] أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، [قال‏]: ما أَكْفَرَهُ أي ماذا فعل و أذنب حتى قتلوه؟ ثم قال: مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ، قال: يسر له طريق الخير ثُمَّ أَماتَهُ فَأَقْبَرَهُ ثُمَّ إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ قال: في الرجعة كَلَّا لَمَّا يَقْضِ ما أَمَرَهُ أي لم يقض أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) ما قد أمره، و سيرجع حتى يقضي ما أمره.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: “The person was killed” He said: [He] is Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام.  [He said] “What charged him with disbelief” that is, what did he do and (what) sin did he commit in order that they killed him?  Then He said “Of which thing did He create Him? Of a nutfa, He created him and fashioned him.  Then the path He did make easy for him” He said: The road of goodness He made easy for him “Then causes him to die and buries him.  Then when He wills He will raise him (to life again)” He said: in the raj`a.  “Nay, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him to” that is, Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام did not fulfill what he had been commanded to do, and he will return (in the raj`a) so that he may fulfill what he was commanded to do.

 

ثم قال علي بن إبراهيم: أخبرنا أحمد بن إدريس، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن أبي نصر، عن جميل بن دراج، عن أبي أسامة، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام)، قال: سألته عن قول الله عز و جل: قُتِلَ الْإِنْسانُ ما أَكْفَرَهُ قال: «نعم، نزلت في أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) ما أَكْفَرَهُ يعني بقتلكم إياه، ثم نسب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، فنسب خلقه و ما أكرمه الله به، فقال: مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَهُ من طينة الأنبياء خلقه فقدره للخير ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ يعني سبيل الهدى، ثم أماته ميتة الأنبياء، ثُمَّ إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ».

قلت: ما قوله: إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ؟ قال: «يمكث بعد قتله في الرجعة، فيقضي ما أمره».

 

Then `Ali b. Ibrahim said: Ahmad b. Idris reported to us from Ibn Abi Nasr from Jamil b. Darraj from Abu Usama from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about the saying of Allah عز و جل “The person was killed, what charged him with disbelief” 

He said: Yes, it was sent down regarding Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام.  “what charged him with disbelief” meaning by your killing of him.  Then He attributed Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام and attributed his creation and what Allah honored him thereby.  So he said: “From which thing did He create him” from the clay of the prophets He created him and fashioned him for goodness “Then the path He did make easy for him” meaning the path of guidance, then He caused him to die the death of the prophets “Then when He wills He will raise him (to life again)”

I said: What is His saying “when He wills He will raise him (to life again)”?  He said: He will remain after his killing in the raj`a, and fulfill what he was commanded to do.

 

محمد بن العباس: عن أحمد بن إدريس، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أحمد بن محمد ابن أبي نصر، عن جميل بن دراج، عن أبي اسامة، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام)، قال: سألته عن قول الله عز و جل: كَلَّا لَمَّا يَقْضِ ما أَمَرَهُ، قلت له: جعلت فداك، متى ينبغي [له‏] أن يقضيه؟ قال: «نعم، نزلت في أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، فقوله تعالى: قُتِلَ الْإِنْسانُ يعني أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) ما أَكْفَرَهُ يعني قاتله بقتله إياه، ثم نسب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، فنسب خلقه و ما أكرمه الله به، فقال: مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَهُ من نطفة الأنبياء خلقه فقدره للخير ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ يعني سبيل الهدى، ثم أماته ميتة الأنبياء ثُمَّ إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ قلت: ما معنى قوله إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ؟ قال: «يمكث بعد قتله ما شاء الله، ثم يبعثه الله، و ذلك قوله: إِذا شاءَ أَنْشَرَهُ و قوله تعالى: لَمَّا يَقْضِ ما أَمَرَهُ في حياته، ثم يمكث بعد قتله في الرجعة».

 

Ta’wil al-Ayat: Muhammad b. al-`Abbas from Ahmad b. Idris from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. `Isa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Jamil b. Darraj from Abu Usama from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام. He said: I asked him about the saying of Allah عز و جل “Nay, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him to” I said to him: May I be made your ransom, when ought he fulfill it?

He said: Yes, it was sent down regarding Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام.  So His تعالى saying “The person was killed, what charged him with disbelief” means Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام “what charged him with disbelief” meaning his killer by his killing of him.  Then He attributed Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام and attributed his creation and what Allah honored him thereby.  So he said: “From which thing did He create him” from the nutfa of the prophets He created him and fashioned him for goodness “Then the path He did make easy for him” meaning the path of guidance, then He caused him to die the death of the prophets “Then when He wills He will raise him (to life again)”

I said: What is the meaning of His saying “when He wills He will raise him (to life again)”?  He said: He will remain after his killing so long as Allah wills, then Allah will resurrect him and that is His saying “when He wills He will raise him (to life again)” and His saying “Nay, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him to” in his lifetime, then he will remain after his killing in the raj`a.

 

فَليَنظُرِ الإِنسانُ إِلىٰ طَعامِهِ ﴿٢٤﴾

 

24 – Let man look at his food

 

محمد بن يعقوب: عن عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد عن أبيه، عمن ذكره، عن زيد الشحام، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام)، في قول الله عز و جل: فَلْيَنْظُرِ الْإِنْسانُ إِلى طَعامِهِ، قلت: ما طعامه، قال: «علمه الذي يأخذه عمن يأخذه».

 

al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ya`qub from a number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from his father from the one who he mentioned from Zayd the oil vendor from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام regarding the saying of Allah عز و جل “Let man look at his food”.  I said: What is his food?

He said: His knowledge which he takes, from whom he takes it.

 

Translator’s note: Also found in al-Ikhtisas with an isnad from Muhammad b. a-Hasan from Muhammad b. al-Hasan as-Saffar from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi `Umayr from Zayd the oil vendor from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.

 

أَنّا صَبَبنَا الماءَ صَبًّا ﴿٢٥﴾

 

25 – Verily, We have poured the water out in torrents

 

ثُمَّ شَقَقنَا الأَرضَ شَقًّا ﴿٢٦﴾

 

26 – Then We cleft the earth with clefts

 

فَأَنبَتنا فيها حَبًّا ﴿٢٧﴾

 

27 – And made to grow therefrom the grain

 

وَعِنَبًا وَقَضبًا ﴿٢٨﴾

 

28 – As grape and clover

 

وَزَيتونًا وَنَخلًا ﴿٢٩﴾

 

29 – And olives and date palms

 

وَحَدائِقَ غُلبًا ﴿٣٠﴾

 

30 – And gardens dense

 

وَفاكِهَةً وَأَبًّا ﴿٣١﴾

 

31 – And fruit and grass

  

مَتاعًا لَكُم وَلِأَنعامِكُم ﴿٣٢﴾

 

32 – For the use of yourselves and of your cattle

 

علي بن إبراهيم: فَلْيَنْظُرِ الْإِنْسانُ إِلى طَعامِهِ أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا الْماءَ صَبًّا إلى قوله تعالى: وَ قَضْباً، قال: القضب. القت، وَ حَدائِقَ غُلْباً أي بساتين ملتفة مجتمعة، وَ فاكِهَةً وَ أَبًّا قال: الأب: الحشيش للبهائم مَتاعاً لَكُمْ وَ لِأَنْعامِكُمْ.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: “Let man look at his food.  Verily, We have poured the water out in torrents” until His تعالى saying “clover”.  He said: Clover is trefoil.  “And gardens dense” that is, winding gardens joined (together) “And fruit and grass” He said: Grass is the pasture for the beasts “For the use of yourselves and your cattle”

 

علي بن إبراهيم: حدثنا سعيد بن محمد، قال: حدثنا بكر بن سهل، قال: حدثني عبد الغني بن سعيد، قال: حدثنا موسى بن عبد الرحمن، عن مقاتل بن سليمان، عن الضحاك، عن ابن عباس، في قوله: مَتاعاً لَكُمْ وَ لِأَنْعامِكُمْ  يريد منافع لكم و لأنعامكم

 

`Ali b. Ibrahim said: Sa`id b. Muhammad narrated to us.  He said: Bakr b. Sahl narrated to us.  He said: `Abd al-Ghani b. Sa`id narrated to me.  He said: Musa b. `Abd ar-Rahman narrated to us from Muqatil b. Sulayman from ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas regarding His saying “For the use of yourselves and your cattle” meaning benefits for you and for your cattle.

 

قال المفيد في (إرشاده): روي أن أبا بكر سئل عن قول الله تعالى: وَ فاكِهَةً وَ أَبًّا فلم يعرف معنى الأب في القرآن، و قال: أي سماء تظلني، أم أي أرض تقلني، أم كيف أصنع إن قلت في كتاب الله بما لا أعلم؟  أما الفاكهة فنعرفها، و أما الأب فالله أعلم به، فبلغ أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) مقاله في ذلك، فقال: «يا سبحان الله! أما علم أن الأب هو الكلأ و المرعى، و أن قوله: وَ فاكِهَةً وَ أَبًّا اعتداد من الله تعالى بإنعامه على خلقه بما غذاهم به و خلقه لهم، و لأنعامهم مما تحيا به أنفسهم و تقوم به أجسادهم».

 

al-Irshad: Shaykh Mufid said: It is narrated that Abu Bakr was asked about the saying of Allah تعالى “And fruit and grass” but he did not know the meaning of grass (al-abb) in the Quran.  And he said: Which Heaven overshadows me, or which Earth carries me, or how shall I act if I say regarding the Book of Allah by what I do not know?  As to the fruit then we recognize it, and as to al-abb then Allah knows it best.

So his saying regarding that reached Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام and he said: O glorified be Allah!  Does he not know that al-abb is the fresh herbage and pasture, and that His saying “And fruit and grass” is a enumeration from Allah تعالى of His benefaction upon His creation of what He nourished them by and created for them, and of what He made their selves to live and their bodies to exist (?).

 

محمد بن يعقوب: عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن هارون بن مسلم، عن مسعدة بن زياد، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، قال: «الفاكهة مائة و عشرون لونا، سيدها الرمان».

 

al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ya`qub from `Ali b. Ibrahim from Harun b. Muslim from Mas`ada b. Ziyad from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: The fruit is one hundred and twenty kinds, and its master is the pomegranate.

 

فَإِذا جاءَتِ الصّاخَّةُ ﴿٣٣﴾

 

33 – So when the Blast shall come

 

علي بن إبراهيم: قوله تعالى: فَإِذا جاءَتِ الصَّاخَّةُ قال: القيامة.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: His تعالى saying “So when the Blast shall come” He said: the resurrection.

 

يَومَ يَفِرُّ المَرءُ مِن أَخيهِ ﴿٣٤﴾

 

34 – On the day when man shall flee from his brother

 

وَأُمِّهِ وَأَبيهِ ﴿٣٥﴾

 

35 – And his mother and his father

 

وَصاحِبَتِهِ وَبَنيهِ ﴿٣٦﴾

 

36 – And his spouse and his children

 

لِكُلِّ امرِئٍ مِنهُم يَومَئِذٍ شَأنٌ يُغنيهِ ﴿٣٧﴾

 

37 – For every man of them on that day shall have an affair enough to employ him

 

علي بن إبراهيم، قوله تعالى: لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ شَأْنٌ يُغْنِيهِ، قال: شغل يشتغل به عن غيره.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: His تعالى saying “For every man of them on that day shall have an affair enough to employ him” He said: An occupation that will occupy him from (people) other than him(self).

 

وُجوهٌ يَومَئِذٍ مُسفِرَةٌ ﴿٣٨﴾

 

38 – Faces on that day shall be bright

 

ضاحِكَةٌ مُستَبشِرَةٌ ﴿٣٩﴾

 

39 – Laughing, joyous

 

في محاسن البرقى عنه عن الحسين بن يزيد النوفلى عن السكونى عن جعفر عن أبيه عن على (عليه السلام) قال: ومن وقر مسجدا لقى الله يوم يلقاه ضاحكا مستبشرا و أعطاه كتابه بيمينه.

 

al-Mahasin: al-Barqi from al-Husayn b. Yazid an-Nawfali from as-Sakuni from Ja`far from his father from `Ali عليه السلام.  He said: And whoso respects a masjid shall meet Allah on the day he meets Him laughing, joyous, and He shall give him his book by his right hand.

 

وَوُجوهٌ يَومَئِذٍ عَلَيها غَبَرَةٌ ﴿٤٠﴾

 

40 – And faces shall have dust upon them

 

تَرهَقُها قَتَرَةٌ ﴿٤١﴾

 

41 – Darkness shall cover them

 

Translator’s note: qatara here translated as darkness can also be translated as dust.


أُولـٰئِكَ هُمُ الكَفَرَةُ الفَجَرَةُ ﴿٤٢﴾

 

42 – Those are the unbelievers, the wicked

 

علي بن إبراهيم: ثم ذكر عز و جل الذين تولوا أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، و تبرءوا من أعدائه، فقال: وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُسْفِرَةٌ ضاحِكَةٌ مُسْتَبْشِرَةٌ ثم ذكر أعداء آل الرسول وَ وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْها غَبَرَةٌ تَرْهَقُها قَتَرَةٌ أي فقر من الخير و الثواب. 

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: Then He عز و جل mentioned those who are loyal to Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام and disassociate from his enemies, so He said “Faces on that day shall be bright, laughing, joyous” then He mentioned the enemies of the Family of the Messenger “And faces shall have dust upon them, darkness shall cover them” that is, poverty of goodness and reward.

 

قوله: وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْها غَبَرَةٌ يريد مسودة تَرْهَقُها قَتَرَةٌ يريد غبار جهنم أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ أي الكافر الجاحد.

His saying “faces on that shall have dust upon them” meaning blackened “darkness shall cover them” meaning the dust of Hell (ghubar jahannam) “those are the unbelievers, the wicked” that is, the ungrateful/denying kafir.