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al-Kawthar

سورة الكوثر

 

Sura al-Kawthar (the Abundant)

 

بِسمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحمـٰنِ الرَّحيمِ

 

By the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

إِنّا أَعطَيناكَ الكَوثَرَ ﴿١﴾

 

1 – Verily We have granted you al-Kawthar

 

 

تأويل الآيات محمد بن العباس (رحمه الله)، عن أحمد بن سعيد العماري (من ولد عمار بن ياسر) ، عن إسماعيل بن زكريا، عن محمد بن عون، عن عكرمة عن ابن عباس في قوله (إنا أعطيناك الكوثر) قال: نهر في الجنة عمقه في الارض سبعون ألف فرسخ، ماؤه أشد بياضا من اللبن وأحلى من العسل، شاطئاه من اللؤلؤ والزبرجد والياقوت، خص الله تعالى به نبيه وأهل بيته - صلوات الله عليهم - دون الانبياء.

ويؤيده: ما رواه أيضا، عن أحمد بن محمد (عن أحمد بن الحسن عن أبيه) عن حصين بن مخارق، عن عمرو بن خالد، عن زيد بن علي، عن أبيه، عن علي عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أراني جبرئيل منازلي (في الجنة) ، ومنازل أهل بيتي على الكوثر.

 

Ta’wil al-Ayat: Muhammad b. al-`Abbas رحمه الله from Ahmad b. Sa`id al-`Ammari [from the descendents of `Ammar b. Yasir] from Isma`il b. Zakariyya from Muhammad b. `Awn from `Ikrama from Ibn `Abbas regarding His saying “Verily We have granted you al-Kawthar” He said: A river in the Garden whose depth in the ground is seventy thousand farsakh.  Its water is more intense in whiteness than milk and sweeter than honey.  Its shores are of pearl and peridot and corundum.  Allah تعالى favored/allotted His Prophet with it and the People of his House صلوات الله عليهم – apart from the prophets.

And there supports it what he also narrated from Ahmad b. Muhammad [from Ahmad b. al-Hasan from his father] from HuSayn b. Mukhariq from `Amr b. Khalid from Zayd b. `Ali from his father from `Ali عليه السلام.  He said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: Jibra’il showed me my dwellings (or, statuses) in the Garden, and the dwellings of the People of my House upon al-Kawthar.

 

تفسير فرات الكوفي قال: حدثنا أبو القاسم العلوي قال: حدثنا فرات قال: حدثني عبيد بن كثير معنعناً: عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي عليهما السلام قال: لما أنزل الله تعالى على نبيه محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: { إنا أعطيناك الكوثر } قال له أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام: يا رسول الله لقد شرف الله هذا النهر وكرّمه فانعته لنا؟ قال: " نعم يا علي الكوثر نهر يجري من تحت عرش الله، ماؤه أبيض من اللبن وأحلى من العسل وألين من الزبد، حصاه [ر: حصباؤه] الدر والياقوت والمرجان، ترابه المسك الأذفر وحشيشه الزعفران، سنخ قوائمه عرش رب العالمين، ثمره كأمثال القلال من الزبرجد الأخضر والياقوت الأحمر والدر الأبيض [ر، أ: ودر أبيض] يستبين ظاهره من باطنه وباطنه من ظاهره. فبكى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وأصحابه ثم ضرب بيده إلى علي بن أبي طالب [2: على جنبي] فقال: [أما. 2] والله يا علي ما هو لي وحدي وإنما هو لي ولك ولمحبيك من بعدي ".

 

Tafsir Furat al-Kufi: He said: Abu ‘l-Qasim al-`Alawi narrated to us.  He said: Furat narrated to us.  He said: `Ubayd b. Kathir narrated to me on the authority of Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. `Ali عليهما السلام.  He said: When Allah تعالى send down “Verily We have granted you al-Kawthar” upon His Prophet, Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله, Amir al-Mu’mineen `Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام said to him: O Messenger of Allah, Allah has dignified this river and honored it, so will you describe it for us? He said: Yes, O `Ali.  Al-Kawthar is a river that flows under the throne of Allah.  Its water is whiter than milk, and sweeter than honey, and softer than cream/butter (or, foam).  Its small stones [alt. its gravel] are pearl, corundum, and coral.  Its soil is strong musk and its grass is saffron.  The root of its pillars (?) is the throne of the Lord of the worlds.  Its fruits are like vines (?) of green peridot, red corundum, and white pearl.  Its outside is clear from its inside and its inside from its outside.  So the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله cried, and his companions, then with his hand he struck to `Ali b. Abi Talib [alt. on my side].  And he said: [Indeed] by Allah, O `Ali, it is not only for me by myself alone, and it is only for me and for you and for the one who loves you after me.

 

A similar narration by an isnad going to Ibn `Abbas can be found in the Amalis of Shaykh Mufid and Shaykh Tusi, and in Bisharat al-Mustafa of Muhammad b. Abi ‘l-Qasim at-Tabari.

 

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانحَر ﴿٢﴾

 

2 – So pray to your Lord and do naHr

 

Translator’s note: “wa ‘nHar” is usually translated as “and slaughter” referring to the slaughtering of camels perform by stabbing their naHr, which is where the windpipe commences in the uppermost part of the chest.  Because of the alternate meanings given here in these hadith however, I have left it as an Arabic term instead.

 

 الشيخ الطوسي في تهذيب الأحكام عن الحسين بن سعيد عن النضر عن ابن سنان عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله تعالى: (فصل لربك وأنحر) قال: هو رفع يديك حذاء وجهك.

 

Tahdhib al-Ahkam: from al-Husayn b. Sa`id from an-Nadr from Ibn Sinan from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام regarding His تعالى saying “So pray to your Lord and do naHr” He said: It is the raising of your hands next to your face.

 

محمد بن يعقوب في الكافي عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن حماد، عن حريز، عن رجل، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام)، قال: قلت له: فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَ انْحَرْ؟ قال: «النحر: الاعتدال في القيام، أن يقيم صلبه و نحره». و قال: «لا تكفر، فإنما يصنع ذلك المجوس، و لا تلثم، و لا تحتفز «1»، و لا تقع على قدميك، و لا تفترش ذراعيك».

 

al-Kafi: from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Hammad from Hariz from a man from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: I said to him: “So pray to your Lord and do naHr”? He said: an-naHr is balance in standing, that one straightens one’s chest and naHr.  And he said: Do not do takfeer (the folding of the hands one over the other in salat), for only the Zoroastrians do that.  And do not wear a litham (a veil covering from the lower part of the face to the eyes, thus covering the mouth), and do not draw yourself together (i.e. in sitting and sujud), and do not do iq`aa upon your feet (sitting with the buttocks resting upon the two heels), and do not spread (or, stretch) your arms.

 

إِنَّ شانِئَكَ هُوَ الأَبتَرُ ﴿٣﴾

 

3 – Verily he who hates you he is the abtar.

 

Translator’s note: An abtar means having one’s tail cut off, and is figuratively used to refer to having one’s progeny cut off.

Tafsir al-Qummi: He said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله entered the masjid and `Amr b. al-`Aas and al-Hakam b. Abi ‘l-`Aas were in it.  `Amr said: O Abu ‘l-Abtar! And in the time of ignorance (al-jahiliyya), when the man did not have a child he was called an abtar.  Then `Amr said: I hate (ashna’a) Muhammad, that is, I hate him (abghadahu).  So Allah sent down upon Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله “Verily We have given you al-Kawthar.  So pray to your Lord and strike the throat” until His saying “Verily the one who hates you” that is, your hater `Amr b. al-`Aas “he is the abtar” meaning: he has no religion and no lineage.