Tafsir‎ > ‎al-Ma'ida‎ > ‎

5

اليَومَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّباتُ وَطَعامُ الَّذينَ أوتُوا الكِتابَ حِلٌّ لَكُم وَطَعامُكُم حِلٌّ لَهُم وَالمُحصَناتُ مِنَ المُؤمِناتِ وَالمُحصَناتُ مِنَ الَّذينَ أوتُوا الكِتابَ مِن قَبلِكُم إِذا آتَيتُموهُنَّ أُجورَهُنَّ مُحصِنينَ غَيرَ مُسافِحينَ وَلا مُتَّخِذي أَخدانٍ وَمَن يَكفُر بِالإيمانِ فَقَد حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الخاسِرينَ ﴿٥﴾

 

5 – Lawful for you today are the good things, and the food of those to whom the Book has been given is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them; and the chaste women of those who believe, and the chaste women of those to whom the Book has been given before you, - when you have given them their hire, living chastely and not fornicating, and not taking paramours. But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain, and he shall be in the Hereafter of those who lose.

.

قوله: { أحل لكم الطيبات وطعام الذين أوتوا الكتاب حل لكم } قال عني بطعامهم الحبوب والفاكهة غير الذبائح التي يذبحونها فإنهم لا يذكرون اسم الله على ذبائحهم، ثم قال: والله ما استحلوا ذبائحكم فكيف تستحلون ذبائحهم.

وقوله: { والمحصنات من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم } فقد أحل الله نكاح أهل الكتاب بعد تحريمه في قوله في سورة البقرة:

{ ولا تنكحوا المشركات حتى يؤمن } وإنما يحل نكاح أهل الكتاب الذين يؤدون الجزية على ما يجب فأما إذا كانوا في دار الشرك ولم يؤدوا الجزية لم يحل مناكحتهم وقوله: { ومن يكفر بالإِيمان فقد حبط عمله } قال من آمن ثم أطاع أهل الشرك فقد حبط عمله وكفر بالإِيمان { وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين }.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: His saying “Lawful for you are the good things, and the food of those to whom the Book has been given is lawful for you” He said: By their foods He meant grains and fruit, other than the slaughtered animals which they slaughter, for they do not mention the name of Allah over their slaughtered animals.  Then he said: By Allah, they do not consider your slaughtered animals to be lawful, so how can you consider their slaughtered animals to be lawful.

And His saying “and the chaste women of those to whom the Book has been given before you” so Allah had made lawful the marriage of the people of the Book after its forbiddance in His saying in sura al-Baqara “and do not marry the mushrik women until they believe”.  And He only made lawful the marriage of the people of the Book who pay the jizya upon what is obligatory.  So when they are in the realm of shirk and do not pay the jizya, marriage to them is not lawful.

And His saying “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain” He said: One who believes then obeys the people of shirk, then his work is vain and he has disbelieved in the faith “and he shall be in the Hereafter of those who lose.”

 

محمد بن يعقوب: عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن محمد بن سنان، عن أبي الجارود، قال سألت أبا جعفر (عليه السلام) عن قول الله عز و جل: وَ طَعامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ وَ طَعامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ، فقال (عليه السلام): «الحبوب و البقول».

 

al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ya`qub from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Sinan from Abu ‘l-Jarud.  He said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام about the saying of Allah عزوجل “and the food of those to whom the Book has been given is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them” He said: Grains (al-hubub) and vegetables (al-buqul).

 

Translator’s note: al-hubub which has been translated as grains here and below can mean legumes as well.

 

و عنه: عن عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن عثمان بن عيسى، عن سماعة، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، قال: سألته عن طعام أهل الكتاب و ما يحل منه، قال: «الحبوب».

 

And from him from a number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from `Uthman b. `Isa from Sama`a from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about the food of the people of the Book and what is lawful from it?  He said: Grains.

 

و عنه: عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن سنان، عن عمار بن مروان عن سماعة، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) عن طعام أهل الكتاب و ما يحل منه، فقال: «الحبوب».

 

And from him from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. `Isa from Muhammad b. Sinan from `Ammar b. Marwan from Sama`a.  He said: I asked Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام about the food of the people of the Book and what is lawful from it?  He said: Grains.

 

محمد بن يعقوب: عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن محبوب، عن علي بن رئاب، عن زرارة ابن أعين، قال سألت أبا جعفر (عليه السلام) عن قول الله عز و جل: وَ الْمُحْصَناتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ، فقال: «هذه منسوخة بقوله: وَ لا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوافِرِ

 

And from him from `Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Mahbub from `Ali b. Ri’ab from Zurara b. A`yan.  He said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام about the saying of Allah عز و جل “and the chaste women of those to whom the Book has been given before you”.  So he said: It is abrogated (mansukha) by His saying “And do not hold onto the ties of the kafir women.” (60:10)

 

Translator’s note: This is difficult however in that other hadith indicate nothing from al-Ma’ida is abrogated.

 

وعن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن أبيه ، عن إسماعيل بن مرار ، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن ، عن محمد بن مسلم ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث ـ قال : لا ينبغي للمسلم أن يتزوج يهودية ولا نصرانية وهو يجد مسلمة حرة أو أمة .

 

And from `Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Isma`il b. Marrar from Yunus b. `Abd ar-Rahman from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام in a hadith wherein he said: It is not appropriate for the Muslim to marry a Jewish woman nor a Christian woman while he finds a free Muslim woman or a slave-girl.

 

و عنه: عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن عبيد بن زرارة، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام)، عن قول الله: وَ مَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ، فقال: «من ترك العمل الذي أقر به».

قلت: فما موضع ترك العمل حتى يدعه أجمع؟ قال: «منه الذي يدع الصلاة متعمدا، و لا من سكر، و لا من علة».

 

And from him from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Faddal from Ibn Bukayr from `Ubayd b. Zurara. He said: I asked Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام about the saying of Allah “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain”.  So he said: One who abandoned the act which he had confirmed.

I said: So what is the position of abandonment of the act until he leaves it off altogether?

He said: From it is the one who leaves off salat on purpose, not out of intoxication and not out of an illness (or: a reason).

 

الشيخ: بإسناده عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن محمد بن خالد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن‏ سالم، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، في قول الله تعالى: وَ طَعامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ، فقال: «العدس و الحمص و غير ذلك».

 

at-Tahdhib: Shaykh Tusi by his isnad from al-Husayn b. Sa`id from Muhammad b. Khalid from Ibn Abi `Umayr from Hisham b. Salim from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام regarding the saying of Allah تعالى “and the food of those to whom the Book has been given is lawful for you” So he said: Lentils, chickpeas and other than that.

 

وروى الحسن بن محبوب، عن معاوية بن وهب وغيره من أصحابنا عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: " سألته عن الرجل المؤمن يتزوج اليهودية والنصرانية؟ فقال: إذا أصاب المسلمة فما يصنع باليهودية والنصرانية؟! قلت، يكون له فيها الهوى، قال: فإن فعل فليمنعها من شرب الخمر وأكل لحم الخنزير، واعلم أن عليه في دينه في تزويجه إياها غضاضة "

 

al-Faqih: From al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Mu`awiya b. Wahb and other than him from our companions from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about the believing man who marries the Jewish woman and the Christian woman. 

He said: When he comes by the Muslim woman then what does he have to do with the Jewish woman and the Christian woman? 

So I said to him: He has desire for her. 

So he said: If he does it then he is to forbid her from drinking wine and eating the flesh of swine, and know that there is a deficiency against him in his religion.

 

Translator’s note: Regarding the issues of the permissibility of marriage to a kitabi woman there have been many different views amongst the jurists, ranging from views such as that it is haram to marry them whether in permanent or mut`a marriage, to it being haram in permanent marriage but halal in mut`a, to being halal in both, as well as the issue of whether it is allowed while one already has a free Muslim wife.  Likewise, there has been a difference of views regarding the conditionality of the slaughterer being Muslim, such as if a kitabi were to pronounce the name of Allah over the animal and slaughter it, with a Muslim hearing him do so, whether this would be deemed halal to consume or not.  I have not proffered any particular one of these views as being the correct one here, and the above represents only a sampling of the many ahadith that speak on these matters.

 

عن ابن سنان عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: " والمحصنات من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم " قال نسختها " ولا تمسكوا بعصم الكوافر ".

 

Tafsir al-`Ayyashi: From Ibn Sinan from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: “and the chaste women of those to whom the Book has been given before you” He said: “and do not hold to the ties of the kafir women” abrogated it.

 

عن أبي جميلة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: في " المحصنات من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم " قال: هن العفايف.

 

From Abu Jamila from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said regarding “and the chaste women of those to whom the Book has been given before you” He said: They are the chaste (al-`afa’if).

 

عن عبد صالح قال: سألناه عن قوله: " والمحصنات من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم " ما هن وما معنى احصانهن؟قال: هن العفايف من نسائهم.

 

From a Righteous Servant.  He said: We asked him about His saying “and the chaste women (al-muhSanat) of those to whom the Book has been given before you” what are they and what is the meaning of their ihSan?  He said: They are the chaste from their women.

 

Translator’s note: To be muhSan literally means to be fortified.  It can be used to mean married or chaste, with the latter meaning being the one meant in this aya as the ahadith demonstrate.

 

عن أبان بن عبد الرحمن قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: أدنى ما يخرج به الرجل من الاسلام ان يرى الرأي بخلاف الحق فيقيم عليه، قال: " ومن يكفر بالايمان فقد حبط عمله " وقال: الذي يكفر بالايمان الذي لا يعمل بما امر الله به ولا يرضى به.

 

From Aban b. `Abd ar-Rahman.  He said: I heard Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام saying: The least by which the man is taken out from Islam is that he regard the view in opposition to the truth and sticks to it.  He said: “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain” And he said: The one who disbelieves in the faith is the one who does not act by what Allah commanded and does not accept it.

 

43 - عن محمد بن مسلم عن أحدهما في قول الله: " ومن يكفر بالايمان فقد حبط عمله " قال: هو ترك العمل حتى يدعه أجمع قال: منه الذي يدع الصلاة متعمدا لا من شغل ولا من سكر يعنى النوم.

 

From Muhammad b. Muslim from one of the two of them regarding the saying of Allah “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain” He said: It is the abandonment of the act until he leaves it altogether.  He said: From it is the one who leaves off salat on purpose, not out of being busy, or out of intoxication (sukr) – meaning sleep.

 

44 - عن جابر عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن تفسير هذه الآية " ومن يكفر بالايمان فقد حبط عمله " يعنى بولاية علي عليه السلام وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين.(54)

 

From Jabir from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about the tafsir of this aya “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain” meaning in the walayat of `Ali عليه السلام “and he shall be in the Hereafter of those who lose.”

 

محمد بن الحسن الصفار: عن عبد الله بن عامر، عن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن الحسين بن عثمان، عن محمد بن الفضيل، عن أبي حمزة، قال: سألت أبا جعفر (عليه السلام) عن قول الله تبارك و تعالى: وَ مَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَ هُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخاسِرِينَ، قال: «تفسيرها في بطن القرآن: و من يكفر بولاية علي، و علي هو الإيمان».

 

Basa’ir ad-Darajat: Muhammad b. al-Hasan as-Saffar from `Abdullah b. `Amir from Abu `Abdillah al-Barqi from al-Husayn b. `Uthman from Muhammad b. al-Fudayl from Abu Hamza.  He said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام about the saying of Allah تبارك و تعالى “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain, and he shall be in the Hereafter of those who lose.” He said: Its tafsir in the inside (batn) of the Quran is: and whoso disbelieves in the walayat of `Ali, and `Ali is the faith.

 

ابن شهر آشوب في (المناقب): عن الباقر (عليه السلام)، و عن زيد بن علي، و ابن الفارسي في (الروضة) عن زيد بن علي في قوله تعالى: وَ مَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ، قال: بولاية علي (عليه السلام).

 

al-Manaqib and ar-Rawda: Ibn ShahAshub in al-Manaqib from al-Baqir عليه السلام and from Zayd b.`Ali, and Ibn al-Farsi in ar-Rawda from Zayd b. `Ali regarding His تعالى saying “But whoso disbelieves in the faith, of a truth his work is vain” He said: in the walayat of `Ali عليه السلام.