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85-98

قالَ فَإِنّا قَد فَتَنّا قَومَكَ مِن بَعدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ السّامِرِيُّ ﴿٨٥﴾

 

85 – He said, 'Verily, We have tried your people, since you left, and the Samari has led them astray.'

 

قوله: { فإنا قد فتنا قومك من بعدك وأضلهم السامري } قال بالعجل الذي عبده وكان سبب ذلك أن موسى لما وعده الله أن ينزل عليه التوراة والألواح إلى ثلاثين يوماً أخبر بني إسرائيل بذلك وذهب إلى الميقات وخلف هارون على قومه فلما جاء‌ت الثلاثون يوماً ولم يرجع موسى إليهم غضبوا وأرادوا أن يقتلوا هارون، قالوا: إن موسى كذبنا وهرب منا فجاء‌هم إبليس في صورة رجل فقال لهم: إن موسى قد هرب منكم ولا يرجع إليكم أبداً فاجمعوا لي حليكم حتى أتخذ لكم إلها تعبدونه وكان السامري على مقدمة موسى يوم أغرق الله فرعون وأصحابه فنظر إلى جبرائيل وكان على حيوان في صورة رمكة فكانت كلما وضعت حافرها على موضع من الأرض تحرك ذلك الموضع فنظر إليه السامري وكان من خيار أصحاب موسى فأخذ التراب من تحت حافر رمكة جبرائيل وكان يتحرك فصره في صرة وكان عنده يفتخر به على بني إسرائيل فلما جاء‌هم إبليس واتخذوا العجل قال للسامري هات التراب الذي معك فجاء به السامري فألقاه إبليس في جوف العجل فلما وقع التراب في جوفه تحرك وخار ونبت عليه الوبر والشعر، فسجد له بنو إسرائيل فكان عدد الذين سجدوا سبعين ألفا من بني إسرائيل.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: His saying “Verily, We have tried your people, since you left, and the Samari has led them astray.” He said: by the calf which they worshipped.  The reason for that was that when Allah promised him to send the Torah and the tablets upon him to thirty days, Musa informed the Children of Israel of that and went to the appointed time, and left Harun over his people.  So when the thirty days came and Musa had not returned to them, they became wroth and wanted to kill Harun.

They said: Musa has lied to us and fled from us.  So Iblis came to them in the form of a man and said to them: If Musa has fled from you and will not return to you ever, then gather for me your jewelry that I might make for you a god that you shall worship.

The Samiri had been on the vanguard of Musa on the day that Allah drowned Fir`awn and his companions, and had looked at Jibra’il while he was on an animal in the form of a mare.  So it was that whenever it would put its hoof on a place of the ground, that place would move and the Samiri looked at it.  And he was from the select of the companions of Musa.  So he took the dirt from under the hoof of the mare of Jibra’il while it was moving, and he packed it up in a parcel.  With it, he would take pride in it over the Children of Israel. So when Iblis came to them, and made for them the calf, he said to the Samiri: Hand the dirt that is with you.  So the Samiri brought it and Iblis cast it in the hollow of the calf.  And when the dirt fell in its hollow, it moved and bellowed, and soft-hair and hair grew upon it, and the Children of Israel prostrated to it. 

So the number of those who prostrated from the Children of Israel was seventy thousand.

 

فَرَجَعَ موسىٰ إِلىٰ قَومِهِ غَضبانَ أَسِفًا قالَ يا قَومِ أَلَم يَعِدكُم رَبُّكُم وَعدًا حَسَنًا أَفَطالَ عَلَيكُمُ العَهدُ أَم أَرَدتُم أَن يَحِلَّ عَلَيكُم غَضَبٌ مِن رَبِّكُم فَأَخلَفتُم مَوعِدي ﴿٨٦﴾

 

86 – So Musa returned to his people wrathful, grieving.  He said, 'O my people, did not your Lord promise you a good promise? Did the time seem too long for you, or did you desire that wrath should light on you from your Lord, that you have broken your promise to me?'

 

قالوا ما أَخلَفنا مَوعِدَكَ بِمَلكِنا وَلـٰكِنّا حُمِّلنا أَوزارًا مِن زينَةِ القَومِ فَقَذَفناها فَكَذٰلِكَ أَلقَى السّامِرِيُّ ﴿٨٧﴾

 

87 – They said, 'We have not broken our promise to you of our own accord. But we were made to carry loads from the ornaments of the people, and we hurled them down, and so did the Samari cast;

 

فَأَخرَجَ لَهُم عِجلًا جَسَدًا لَهُ خُوارٌ فَقالوا هـٰذا إِلـٰهُكُم وَإِلـٰهُ موسىٰ فَنَسِيَ ﴿٨٨﴾

 

88 – And he brought forth for the people a corporeal calf which lowed.' And they said, 'This is your god and the god of Musa, but he has forgotten!'

 

أَفَلا يَرَونَ أَلّا يَرجِعُ إِلَيهِم قَولًا وَلا يَملِكُ لَهُم ضَرًّا وَلا نَفعًا ﴿٨٩﴾

 

89 – Do they not see that it does not return them any speech, and cannot control for them harm or benefit?

 

وَلَقَد قالَ لَهُم هارونُ مِن قَبلُ يا قَومِ إِنَّما فُتِنتُم بِهِ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ الرَّحمـٰنُ فَاتَّبِعوني وَأَطيعوا أَمري ﴿٩٠﴾

 

90 – Harun too told them before, 'O my people, you are only being tried thereby; and, verily, your Lord is the Beneficent, so follow me and obey my command.'

 

قالوا لَن نَبرَحَ عَلَيهِ عاكِفينَ حَتّىٰ يَرجِعَ إِلَينا موسىٰ ﴿٩١﴾

 

91 – They said, 'We will not cease devotion to it until Musa come back to us.'

 

قال لهم هارون كما حكى الله: { يا قوم إنما فتنتم به وإن ربكم الرحمن فاتبعوني وأطيعوا أمري قالوا لن نبرح عليه عاكفين حتى يرجع إلينا موسى } فهموا بهارون حتى هرب من بينهم وبقوا في ذلك حتى تم ميقات موسى أربعين ليلة، فلما كان يوم عشرة من ذي الحجة أنزل الله عليه الألواح فيها التوراة وما يحتاجون إليه من أحكام السير والقصص ثم أوحى الله إلى موسى: إنا قد فتنا قومك من بعدك وأضلهم السامري وعبدوا العجل وله خوار فقال موسى عليه السلام: يا رب العجل من السامري فالخوار ممن؟ فقال: مني يا موسى إني لما رأيتهم قد ولوا عني إلى العجل أحببت أن أزيدهم فتنة.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: Harun said to them as Allah related “'O my people, you are only being tried thereby; and, verily, your Lord is the Beneficent, so follow me and obey my command.' They said, 'We will not cease devotion to it until Musa come back to us.'” So they set about Harun until he fled from them and they remained in that until the appointed time of Musa completed forty nights.

So when it was the day of the tenth of Dhu ‘l-Hijja, Allah sent down upon him the tablets in which was the Torah and whatever they needed of the rules of conduct and stories (?).  Then Allah revealed to Musa: Verily, We have tried your people, since you left, and the Samari has led them astray and they have worshiped the calf which lowed.

So Musa عليه السلام said: O Lord, the calf is from the Samiri, so the lowing is from whom?  So He said: From Me, O Musa, verily when I saw them that they had turned away from Me to the calf, I loved that I should increase them in trial (fitna).

 

قالَ يا هارونُ ما مَنَعَكَ إِذ رَأَيتَهُم ضَلّوا ﴿٩٢﴾

 

92 – He said, 'O Harun, what prevented you, when you saw them go astray,

 

أَلّا تَتَّبِعَنِ أَفَعَصَيتَ أَمري ﴿٩٣﴾

 

93 – from following me? Have you then disobeyed my command?'

 

قالَ يَا ابنَ أُمَّ لا تَأخُذ بِلِحيَتي وَلا بِرَأسي إِنّي خَشيتُ أَن تَقولَ فَرَّقتَ بَينَ بَني إِسرائيلَ وَلَم تَرقُب قَولي ﴿٩٤﴾

 

94 – He said, 'O son of my mother, seize me not by my beard, or my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say, "You have made a division amongst the children of Israel, and have not observed my word."'

 

ابن بابويه، قال: حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد، و محمد بن أحمد الشيباني، و الحسين بن إبراهيم بن أحمد بن هشام (رضي الله عنه)، قالوا حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي الأسدي، قال: حدثنا موسى بن عمران النخعي، عن عمه الحسين بن يزيد النوفلي، عن علي بن سالم، عن أبيه، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله (عليه السلام):

أخبرني عن هارون لم قال لموسى (عليه السلام): يا بن ام لا تأخذ بلحيتي و لا برأسي. و لم يقل يا بن أبي؟

فقال: «إن العداوة بين الإخوة أكثر ما تكون إذا كانوا بني علات «2»، و متى كانوا بني ام قلت العداوة إلا أن ينزغ الشيطان بينهم فيطيعوه، فقال هارون لأخيه: يا أخي الذي ولدته امي، و لم تلدني غير امه، لا تأخذ بلحيتي و لا برأسي، و لم يقل يا بن أبي لأن بني الأب إذا كانت أمهاتهم شتى لم تستبعد العداوة بينهم إلا من عصمه الله منهم، و إنما تستبعد العداوة بين بني ام واحدة».

قال: «قلت: فلم أخذ برأس أخيه يجره إليه و بلحيته، و لم يكن له في اتخاذهم العجل و عبادتهم له ذنب.

فقال: «إنما فعل ذلك به لأنه لم يفارقهم لما فعلوا ذلك، و لم يلحق بموسى، و كان إذا فارقهم ينزل بهم العذاب، ألا ترى أنه قال له موسى: يا هارُونُ ما مَنَعَكَ إِذْ رَأَيْتَهُمْ ضَلُّوا أَلَّا تَتَّبِعَنِ أَ فَعَصَيْتَ أَمْرِي؟! قال هارون: لو فعلت ذلك لتفرقوا، و إني خشيت أن تقول: فرقت بين بني إسرائيل و لم ترقب قولي».

 

`Ilal ash-Shara`i: Ibn Babuwayh said: `Ali b. Ahmad b. Muhammad and Muhammad b. Ahmad ash-Shaybani and al-Husayn b. Ibrahim b. Ahmad b. Hisham رضي الله عنه narrated to us.  They said: Muhammad b. Abi `Abdillah al-Kufi al-Asadi narrated to us.  He said: Musa b. `Imran an-Nakh`i narrated to us from his uncle al-Husayn b. Yazid an-Nawfali from `Ali b. Salim from his father.  He said: I said to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام:

Inform me about Harun, why did he say to Musa عليه السلام “'O son of my mother, seize me not by my beard, or my head!” and did not say O son of my father?

So he said: Enmity between brothers is more when they are paternal half-brothers, and when they are sons of (the same) mother the enmity is lessened unless Shaytan incites between them and they obey him.  So Harun said to his brother: O brother whom my mother gave birth to, and (no one) gave birth to me other than his mother, seize me not by my beard or my head.  And he did not say: O son of my father, for when their mothers are different, enmity is not regarded as unlikely between the sons of the father save for whom Allah has protected him from them, and enmity is only regarded as unlikely between the sons of a single mother.

He said: I said: So why did he seize the head and beard of his brother and pull him toward him, while he had no sin in their taking of the calf and their worship of it?

So he said: He only did that to him because he did not depart from them when they did that, and did not go to Musa.  And it was that when he would have departed from them the punishment would have been sent down to them.  Do you not see that Musa said to him “O Harun, what prevented you, when you saw them go astray, from following me? Have you then disobeyed my command?”  Harun said: Had I done that, they would have been divided, and verily, I feared lest you should say, "You have made a division amongst the children of Israel, and have not observed my word."'

 

قالَ فَما خَطبُكَ يا سامِرِيُّ ﴿٩٥﴾

 

95 – He said, 'What was your design, O Samari?’

  

قالَ بَصُرتُ بِما لَم يَبصُروا بِهِ فَقَبَضتُ قَبضَةً مِن أَثَرِ الرَّسولِ فَنَبَذتُها وَكَذٰلِكَ سَوَّلَت لي نَفسي ﴿٩٦﴾

 

96 – He said, 'I saw what they saw not, and I grasped a handful from the track of the messenger and cast it; for thus my soul induced me.'

  

رمى بالألواح وأخذ بلحية أخيه هارون ورأسه يجره إليه فقال: { يا هارون ما منعك إذ رأيتهم ضلوا ألا تتبعن أفعصيت أمري } [92-93] فقال هارون كما حكى الله { يابن أم لا تأخذ بلحيتي ولا برأسي إني خشيت أن تقول فرقت بين بني إسرائيل ولم ترقب قولي } [94] فقال له بنو إسرائيل: { ما أخلفنا موعدك بملكنا } قال: ما خالفناك { ولكنا حملنا أوزاراً من زينة القوم } يعني من حليتهم { فقذفناها } قال: يعني التراب الذي جاء به السامري طرحناه في جوفه ثم أخرج السامري العجل وله خوار فقال له موسى { ما خطبك يا سامري؟ } [95] قال السامري { بصرت بما لم يبصروا به فقبضت قبضة من أثر الرسول فنبذتها } [96] يعني من تحت حافر رمكة جبرائيل في البحر فنبذتها أي أمسكتها { وكذلك سولت لي نفسي } أي زينت، فأخرج موسى العجل فأحرقه بالنار وألقاه في البحر.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: He (Musa) cast down the tablets and seized the beard of his brother Harun and his head pulling him to him.  So he said “O Harun, what prevented you, when you saw them go astray, from following me? Have you then disobeyed my command?”

So Harun said as Allah related “'O son of my mother, seize me not by my beard, or my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say, "You have made a division amongst the children of Israel, and have not observed my word."

So the Children of Israel said to him “We have not broken our promise to you of our own accord.”  They said: We did not contradict you “but we were made to carry loads of the ornaments of the people” meaning from their jewelry “and we hurled them down” He said: meaning the dirt that the Samiri brought, we cast it down in its hollow, then the Samiri produced the calf which lowed.

So Musa said to him “What was your design, O Samari?”

The Samiri said “'I saw what they saw not, and I grasped a handful from the track of the messenger and cast it” meaning from under the hoof of the mare of Jibra’il in the sea, so I grasped it, that is, I grabbed it “for thus my soul induced me” that is, commended it.  So Musa took out the calf and burned it with the fire and cast it in the sea.

 

قالَ فَاذهَب فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِي الحَياةِ أَن تَقولَ لا مِساسَ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوعِدًا لَن تُخلَفَهُ وَانظُر إِلىٰ إِلـٰهِكَ الَّذي ظَلتَ عَلَيهِ عاكِفًا لَنُحَرِّقَنَّهُ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُ فِي اليَمِّ نَسفًا ﴿٩٧﴾

 

97 – He said, 'Begone then; verily, it shall be yours in life to say, "Touch me not!" and, verily, for you there is a threat which you shall surely never alter. But look at your god to which you were just now devout; we will surely burn it, and then we will scatter it in scattered pieces in the sea.

 

إِنَّما إِلـٰهُكُمُ اللَّـهُ الَّذي لا إِلـٰهَ إِلّا هُوَ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيءٍ عِلمًا ﴿٩٨﴾

 

98 – 'Your God is only Allah who,- there is no god but He,- He embraces everything in His knowledge.'

 

قال موسى للسامري: { فاذهب فإن لك في الحياة أن تقول لا مساس } [97] يعني ما دمت حياً وعقبك هذه العلامة فيكم قائمة أن تقول لا مساس يعني حتى تعرفوا أنكم سامرية فلا يغتر بكم الناس فهم إلى الساعة بمصر والشام معروفون ب‍ { لا مساس } ثم هم موسى بقتل السامري فأوحى الله إليه لا تقتله يا موسى فإنه سخي فقال له: { انظر إلى إلهك الذي ظلت عليه عاكفاً لنحرقنه ثم لننسفنه في اليم نسفاً إنما إلهكم الله الذي لا إله إلا هو وسع كل شيء علماً } [97-98] قيل: وإن من عبد العجل أنكر عند موسى عليه السلام إنه لم يسجد له، فأمر موسى عليه السلام أن يبرد العجل بالمبارد وألقى برادته في الماء ثم أمر بني إسرائيل أن يشرب كل منهم من ذلك الماء فالذين كانوا سجدوا يظهر له من البرادة شيء فعند ذلك استبان من خالف ممن ثبت على إيمانه.

 

Tafsir al-Qummi: Musa said to the Samiri “Begone then; verily, it shall be yours in life to say, ‘Touch me not!’” meaning, so long as you remain alive and your descendent, this sign will exist in you that you say “touch me not” meaning so that you (pl.) be recognized as being Samariyya and the people not be deceived by you.  So till now they are in Egypt and Sham known as “touch me not”.

Then Musa had in mind to kill the Samiri, so Allah revealed to him: Do not kill him, O Musa, for He (?) is generous.  So he said to him “But look at your god to which you were just now devout; we will surely burn it, and then we will scatter it in scattered pieces in the sea.  Your God is only Allah who,- there is no god but He,- He embraces everything in His knowledge.”

It is said that whoever worshipped the calf denied to Musa عليه السلام that he had prostrated to it.  So Musa عليه السلام commanded that the calf be filed with files, and he cast its filings into water then commanded the Children of Israel – everyone from them – to drink from that water, so the ones who had prostrated, something of the filing showed for them.  So at that, whoever had opposed was made clear from who had remained firm upon their faith.

 

فحدثنى أبي عن الحسن بن محبوب بن سعيد عن علي بن أبي حمزة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما بعث الله رسولاً إلا وفي وقته شيطانان يؤذيانه ويفتنانه ويضلان الناس بعده وقد ذكرنا هذا الحديث في تفسير: وكذلك جعلنا لكل نبي عدواً شياطين الإنس والجن في سورة الأنعام.

 

My father narrated to me from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from `Ali b. Abi Hamza from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: Allah has not sent a messenger but that there was in his time two shaytan who hurt him and tried him and led the people astray after him.

And we have mentioned this hadith (in full) in the tafsir of “And thus We have made for every prophet an enemy from the shayateen of man and jinn” in sura al-An`am.

 

Translator’s note:  The full hadith as found there is as follows:

 

وحدثني أبي عن الحسين بن سعيد عن بعض رجاله عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما بعث الله نبياً إلا وفي أمته شيطانان يؤذيانه ويضلان الناس بعده فأما صاحبا نوح فقنطيفوص (فغنطيغوص خ ل) وخرام، وأما صاحبا إبراهيم فمكثل (مكيل خ ل) ورزام، وأما صاحبا موسى فالسامري ومر عقيبا (مر عتيبا خ ل) وأما صاحبا عيسى فبولس (برليس - برليش خ ل) ومريتون (مريبون خ ل) وأما صاحبا محمد صلى الله عليه وآله فحبتر (جبتر خ ل) وزريق (زلام خ ل).

 

`Ali b. Ibrahim said: My father narrated to me from al-Husayn b. Sa`id from one of his rijal from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: Allah has not sent a messenger but that there was in his time two shaytan who hurt him and tried him and led the people astray after him.  So as to the five of the Ulu ‘l-`Azm from the messengers: Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, `Isa and Muhammad صلى الله عليه و آله و عليهم, so as to the two companions of Nuh then it was Qantifus [Ghantighus – alt. mss.] and Khuram, and as to the two companions of Ibrahim it was Makthal [Makil – alt. mss.] and Razam, and as to the two companions of Musa it was the Samiri and Mar `Aqiba [Mar `Atiba – alt. mss.], and as to the two companions of `Isa it was Bulus (i.e. Paul) [Barlis, Barlish – alt. mss.] and Maritun [Maribun – alt. mss.], and as to the two companions of Muhammad صلى الله عليه و آله it was Habtar [Jabtar – alt. mss.] and Zurayq [Zalam – alt mss.] (literally “fox” and “shiny/blue eyed”).

 

Translator’s note: The above transliterations for some of the names listed are conjectures by myself and could be incorrect.

 

ابن بابويه، قال: حدثنا أبي (رضي الله عنه)، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن علي ابن معبد، عن الحسين بن خالد، عن أبي الحسن (عليه السلام)، قال: قلت له: عن كم تجزئ البدنة؟ قال: «عن نفس واحدة» قلت: فالبقرة؟ قال: «تجزئ عن خمسة إذا كانوا يأكلون على مائدة واحدة».

قلت: كيف صارت البدنة لا تجزئ إلا عن واحدة، و البقرة تجزئ عن خمسة؟

قال: «لأن البدنة لم يكن فيها من العلة ما في البقرة، إن الذين أمروا قوم موسى (عليه السلام) بعبادة العجل كانوا خمسة أنفس، و كانوا أهل بيت يأكلون على خوان واحد و هم: أذيبويه ، و أخوه مذويه، و ابن أخيه، و ابنته، و امرأته، هم الذين أمروا بعبادة العجل و هم الذين ذبحوا البقرة التي أمر الله تبارك و تعالى بذبحها».

 

`Ilal ash-Shara`i: Ibn Babuwayh said: My father رضي الله عنه narrated to us.  He said: `Ali b. Ibrahim b. Hashim narrated to us from his father from `Ali b. Ma`bad from al-Husayn b. Khalid from Abu ‘l-Hasan عليه السلام.  He said: I said to him: For how many does the badna (the sacrificial animal in hajj) suffice?  He said: For a single person.  I said: So the cow?  He said: It suffices for five when they are eating on a single table.

I said: How did the badna come to suffice for but one, while the cow suffices for five?

He said: It is because the badna does not have the cause (al-`illa) of what is in the cow.  The ones who had commanded the people of Musa to worship the cap where five persons, and they were a people of a house who would eat upon a single table.  And they were: Adhibawayh, his brother Madhiwayh, the son of his brother, his daughter, and his wife.  And they were the ones who command the worship of the calf and they were the ones who slaughtered the cow whose slaughter Allah تبارك و تعالى commanded.


Translator’s note: As with the previous narration, the transliterations of some of the names here is conjectural.